Endoscopic management of duodenal diverticular bleeding.
ABSTRACT Although the presence of a duodenal diverticulum is usually asymptomatic, bleeding in this tissue is sometimes difficult to diagnose and treat.
To investigate the strategy for treatment, we reviewed the clinical data of patients diagnosed and treated for duodenal diverticular bleeding.
Retrospective case series.
Single tertiary-referral center.
Seven consecutive patients with bleeding from a duodenal diverticulum (mean age, 73.7 +/- 3.4 years old).
The clinical characteristics, endoscopic findings, and treatment strategy for duodenal diverticular bleeding.
All 7 patients achieved hemostasis. Six of 7 patients were treated endoscopically. There were no complications with endoscopic treatment.
Three patients bled from diverticula located at the second portion of the duodenum, and 4 patients bled from that located at the third portion. In 6 of 7 patients, lesions were identified and treated endoscopically with hemoclips, hypertonic saline solution and epinephrine (HSE), and/or 1% polidocanol injection. In 1 case, the lesion could not be detected during the first endoscopic examination, and the patient, therefore, was treated with transarterial embolization followed by surgical resection.
This preliminary case series described the feasibility of the endoscopic treatment. However, optimal management, including angiography and/or surgery, should be individualized to the patients, location, and type of hemorrhage.
Bleeding from a duodenal diverticulum should be considered in the case of upper-GI bleeding of unknown origin. An endoscopy may be an effective alternative to surgery in the management of a bleeding duodenal diverticulum.
- New England Journal of Medicine 03/1952; 246(9):317-24. · 51.66 Impact Factor
- Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 11/1998; 48(4):418-20. · 5.21 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A duodenal diverticulum (DD) appears in 2.5% of upper gastrointestinal (UGI) examinations and up to 22% of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticographies (ERCP) and autopsies. Most of these patients are asymptomatic, but the lesion is occasionally associated with bleeding, inflammation, perforation, obstruction of the duodenum or biliary-pancreatic duct (or both), fistula formation in the bile duct, and bezoar formation inside the diverticulum. A total of 816 patients have undergone ERCP examination at our institution since January 1987, and 100 (12.25%) of them have DD. Seven (7%) patients presented with bloody or tarry stools from massive UGI bleeding followed by shock. Only two could be diagnosed by UGI endoscopy preoperatively. The lesions were demonstrated in angiographic studies in another four cases. However, only one was correctly interpreted and one required reoperation after a correct repeat endoscopic finding. The lesions in the other two patients were identified by thorough exploration during laparotomy. The remaining case was diagnosed by intraoperative endoscopy via pyloroduodenotomy. Six underwent surgical intervention, and one was successfully treated by expectant treatment. Three (50%) had leakage from the duodenotomy but recovered uneventfully with conservative treatment. In conclusion, we believe that DD bleeding is more frequent than usually thought. A high index of suspicion should be raised in cases of UGI bleeding when more obvious and common causes have been excluded by routine endoscopy. Aggressive but careful endoscopic examination combined with accurate angiography can help us diagnose most of the cases preoperatively. Diverticulectomy is an effective surgical procedure, though it is associated with a considerable leakage rate. The morbidity is minimal if we can identify the lesion earlier and evacuate the lesion without delay.World Journal of Surgery 08/2001; 25(7):848-55. · 2.23 Impact Factor