Heat shock transcription factor 1 is required for maintenance of ciliary beating in mice.
ABSTRACT Heat shock transcription factors (HSFs) maintain protein homeostasis through regulating expression of heat shock proteins, especially in stressed conditions. In addition, HSFs are involved in cellular differentiation and development by regulating development-related genes, as well as heat shock genes. Here, we showed chronic sinusitis and mild hydrocephalus in postnatal HSF1-null mice, which are associated with impaired mucociliary clearance and cerebrospinal flow, respectively. Analysis of ciliary beating revealed that the amplitude of the beating was significantly reduced, and ciliary beat frequencies were lower in the respiratory epithelium, ependymal cells, oviduct, and trachea of HSF1-null mice than those of wild-type mice. Cilia possess a common axonema structure composed of microtubules of alpha- and beta-tubulin. We found a marked reduction in alpha- and ciliary betaiv-tubulin in the HSF1-null cilia, which is developmentally associated with reduced Hsp90 expression in HSF1-null mice. Treatment of the respiratory epithelium with geldanamycin resulted in rapid reduction of ciliary beating in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, Hsp90 was physically associated with ciliary betaiv-tubulin, and Hsp90 stabilizes tubulin polymerization in vitro. These results indicate that HSF1 is required to maintain ciliary beating in postnatal mice, probably by regulating constitutive expression of Hsp90 that is important for tubulin polymerization.
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ABSTRACT: The ciliary beat frequency (CBF) of guinea-pig fimbria during the ovarian cycle was measured by video microscopy using a high-speed camera (500 Hz). In the follicular phase, with increasing concentrations of beta-oestradiol ([betaE(2)]) and a low concentration of progesterone ([PRG]), CBF increased from 13.5 to 16 Hz. In the ovulatory phase, with further increase of [betaE(2)], CBF decreased gradually from 16 to 13.5 Hz. In the early luteal phase, with low [PRG] and [betaE(2)], CBF increased to 17 Hz; however, in the middle luteal phase, with increasing [PRG], CBF decreased (12 Hz), and in the late luteal phase, with decreasing [PRG], CBF increased to 15 Hz. Then, in the resting phase, with low [betaE(2)] and [PRG], CBF decreased immediately to 14 Hz. The CBF of the fimbria was measured in guinea-pigs treated with beta-oestradiol benzoate (betaE(2)B) or medroxyprogesterone (mPRG). A low dose of betaE(2)B increased CBF to 14.5 Hz, whereas a high dose decreased it to 11 Hz. A betaE(2) receptor blocker, ICI-182,780, abolished the betaE(2)B-induced CBF changes and maintained CBF at 12.0 Hz. Medroxyprogesterone decreased CBF to 12.5 Hz, and mifepristone (a PRG receptor blocker) abolished the mPRG-induced CBF decrease and maintained CBF at 15 Hz. The addition of both blockers increased CBF to 18 Hz, suggesting that activation of betaE(2) or PRG receptors decreases the CBF of the fimbria. In conclusion, a moderate [betaE(2)] increase maintains a high CBF (15.5 Hz) in the follicular phase, and then further [betaE(2)] increase decreases CBF to 13.5 Hz in the ovulatory phase. In the early and late luteal phase, low [betaE(2)] and [PRG] increase CBF to 17 and 15 Hz, respectively, and in the middle luteal phase a high [PRG] decreases CBF (to 12 Hz). Thus, the CBF of the fimbria was controlled by signals via betaE(2) and PRG receptors in guinea-pigs.Experimental physiology 04/2010; 95(7):819-28. · 3.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Heat Shock Factors (HSF) form a family of transcription factors (four in mammals) which were named according to the discovery of their activation by a heat shock. HSFs trigger the expression of genes encoding Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs) that function as molecular chaperones, contributing to establish a cytoprotective state to various proteotoxic stresses and in pathological conditions. Increasing evidence indicates that this ancient transcriptional protective program acts genome-widely and performs unexpected functions in the absence of experimentally defined stress. Indeed, HSFs are able to re-shape cellular pathways controlling longevity, growth, metabolism and development. The most well studied HSF, HSF1, has been found at elevated levels in tumors with high metastatic potential and is associated with poor prognosis. This is partly explained by the above-mentioned cytoprotective (HSP-dependent) function that may enable cancer cells to adapt to the initial oncogenic stress and to support malignant transformation. Nevertheless, HSF1 operates as major multifaceted enhancers of tumorigenesis through, not only the induction of classical heat shock genes, but also of "non-classical" targets. Indeed, in cancer cells, HSF1 regulates genes involved in core cellular functions including proliferation, survival, migration, protein synthesis, signal transduction, and glucose metabolism, making HSF1 a very attractive target in cancer therapy. In this review, we describe the different physiological roles of HSFs as well as the recent discoveries in term of non-cogenic potential of these HSFs, more specifically associated to the activation of "non-classical" HSF target genes. We also present an update on the compounds with potent HSF1-modulating activity of potential interest as anti-cancer therapeutic agents.Cancers. 01/2011; 3(1):1158-81.
Dataset: mouse HSF3