Heat shock transcription factor 1 is required for maintenance of ciliary beating in mice.
ABSTRACT Heat shock transcription factors (HSFs) maintain protein homeostasis through regulating expression of heat shock proteins, especially in stressed conditions. In addition, HSFs are involved in cellular differentiation and development by regulating development-related genes, as well as heat shock genes. Here, we showed chronic sinusitis and mild hydrocephalus in postnatal HSF1-null mice, which are associated with impaired mucociliary clearance and cerebrospinal flow, respectively. Analysis of ciliary beating revealed that the amplitude of the beating was significantly reduced, and ciliary beat frequencies were lower in the respiratory epithelium, ependymal cells, oviduct, and trachea of HSF1-null mice than those of wild-type mice. Cilia possess a common axonema structure composed of microtubules of alpha- and beta-tubulin. We found a marked reduction in alpha- and ciliary betaiv-tubulin in the HSF1-null cilia, which is developmentally associated with reduced Hsp90 expression in HSF1-null mice. Treatment of the respiratory epithelium with geldanamycin resulted in rapid reduction of ciliary beating in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, Hsp90 was physically associated with ciliary betaiv-tubulin, and Hsp90 stabilizes tubulin polymerization in vitro. These results indicate that HSF1 is required to maintain ciliary beating in postnatal mice, probably by regulating constitutive expression of Hsp90 that is important for tubulin polymerization.
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ABSTRACT: The stress-activated transcription factor, heat shock factor-1 (HSF1), regulates many genes including cytoprotective heat shock proteins (HSPs). We hypothesized that polymorphisms in HSF1 may alter the level or function of HSF1 protein accounting for interindividual viability in disease susceptibility or prognosis. We searched for exomic variants in HSF1 by querying human genome databases and directly sequencing DNA from 80 anonymous genomic DNA samples. Overall, HSF1 sequence was highly conserved, with no common variations. We found 31 validated deviations from a reference sequence in the dbSNP database and an additional 5 novel variants by sequencing, with allele frequencies that were 0.06 or less. Of these 36, 2 were in 5'-untranslated region (5'UTR), 10 in 3'UTR, and 24 in the coding region. The potential effects of 5'UTR on secondary structure, protein structure/function, and 3'UTR targets of microRNAs were analyzed using RNAFold, PolyPhen-2, SIFT, and MicroSNiper. One of the 5'UTR variants was predicted to strengthen secondary structure. Eight of 3'UTR variants were predicted to modify microRNA target sequences. Eight of the coding region variants were predicted to modify HSF1 structure/function. Reducing HSF1 levels in A549 cells using short hairpin RNA (shRNA) increased sensitivity to heat-induced killing demonstrating the impact that genetic variants that reduce HSF1 levels might have. Using the pmirGLO expression system, we found that the wild-type HSF1 3'UTR suppressed translation of a firefly luciferase reporter plasmid by 65 %. Introducing two of four 3'UTR single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) increased HSF1 3'UTR translational suppression by 27-44 % compared with the wild-type HSF1 3'UTR sequence while a third SNP reduced suppression by 25 %. HSF1 variants may alter HSF1 protein levels or function with potential effects on cell functions, including sensitivity to stress.Cell Stress and Chaperones 07/2014; 20(1). · 2.54 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The primary cilium is an organelle acting as a master regulator of cellular signalling. We have previously shown that disruption of primary cilia assembly, through targeting intraflagellar transport, is associated with muted nitric oxide and prostaglandin responses to the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Here, we show that loss of the primary cilium disrupts specific molecular signalling events in cytosolic NFκB signalling. The induction of cycloxygenase 2 (COX2) and inducible nitrous oxide synthase (iNOS) protein is abolished. Cells unable to assemble cilia exhibit unaffected activation of IκB kinase (IKK), but delayed and reduced degradation of IκB, due to diminished phosphorylation of inhibitor of kappa B (IκB) by IKK. This results in both delayed and reduced NFκB p65 nuclear translocation and nuclear transcript binding. We also demonstrate that heat shock protein 27 (hsp27), an established regulator of IKK, is localized to the ciliary axoneme and cellular levels are dramatically disrupted with loss of the primary cilium. These results suggest the primary cilia compartment exerts influence over NFκB signalling. We propose the cilium is a locality for regulation of the molecular events defining NFκB signalling events, tuning signalling as appropriate.Cellular Signalling 04/2014; · 4.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) afflicts up to two million people annually in the United States and is the primary cause of death and disability in young adults and children. Previous TBI studies have focused predominantly on the morphological, biochemical and functional alterations of gray matter structures, such as the hippocampus. However, little attention has been given to the brain ventricular system, despite the fact that altered ventricular function is known to occur in brain pathologies. In the present study, we investigate anatomical and functional alterations to mouse ventricular cilia that result from mild traumatic brain injury. We demonstrate that TBI causes a dramatic decrease in cilia. Furthermore, using a particle tracking technique, we demonstrate that CSF flow is diminished, thus potentially negatively affecting waste and nutrient exchange. Interestingly, injury-induced ventricular system pathology resolves completely by thirty days after injury as ependymal cell ciliogenesis restores cilia density to uninjured levels in the affected lateral ventricle.Journal of neurotrauma 04/2014; · 4.25 Impact Factor