Differential binding of Shiga toxin 2 to human and murine neutrophils.
ABSTRACT Shiga toxins (Stx1 and Stx2) are responsible for initiating haemolytic uraemic syndrome, a serious extraintestinal complication caused by enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157 : H7 infection in humans. Shiga toxins are classical AB(5)-type exotoxins, consisting of a globotriaosylceramide (Gb(3))-binding B subunit pentamer and an enzymic A subunit. It is demonstrated in this study that Stx2 binds to human neutrophils by a non-classical mechanism that is independent of Gb(3). In contrast, the investigation revealed that Stx2 binds to murine neutrophils by the classical Gb(3)-dependent mechanism. Moreover, whereas the human serum amyloid P (HuSAP) component inhibited Stx2 binding to murine neutrophils, HuSAP increased Stx2 binding to human neutrophils by 84.2 % (P< or =0.002, Student's t-test). These observations may explain why HuSAP protects mice from the lethal effects of Stx2, whereas there is no indication that HuSAP plays a similar protective role in humans infected by E. coli O157 : H7.
Article: The interactions of human neutrophils with shiga toxins and related plant toxins: danger or safety?[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Shiga toxins and ricin are well characterized similar toxins belonging to quite different biological kingdoms. Plant and bacteria have evolved the ability to produce these powerful toxins in parallel, while humans have evolved a defense system that recognizes molecular patterns common to foreign molecules through specific receptors expressed on the surface of the main actors of innate immunity, namely monocytes and neutrophils. The interactions between these toxins and neutrophils have been widely described and have stimulated intense debate. This paper is aimed at reviewing the topic, focusing particularly on implications for the pathogenesis and diagnosis of hemolytic uremic syndrome.Toxins. 03/2012; 4(3):157-90.
Article: Lipopolysaccharide renders transgenic mice expressing human serum amyloid P component sensitive to Shiga toxin 2.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Transgenic C57BL/6 mice expressing human serum amyloid P component (HuSAP) are resistant to Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2) at dosages that are lethal in HuSAP-negative wild-type mice. However, it is well established that Stx2 initiates extra-intestinal complications such as the haemolytic-uremic syndrome despite the presence of HuSAP in human sera. We now demonstrate that co-administering purified Escherichia coli O55 lipopolysaccharide (LPS), at a dosage of 300 ng/g body weight, to HuSAP-transgenic mice increases their susceptibility to the lethal effects of Stx2. The enhanced susceptibility to Stx2 correlated with an increased expression of genes encoding the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNFα and chemokines of the CXC and CC families in the kidneys of LPS-treated mice, 48 hours after the Stx2/LPS challenge. Co-administering the glucocorticoid dexamethasone, but not the LPS neutralizing cationic peptide LL-37, protected LPS-sensitized HuSAP-transgenic mice from lethal doses of Stx2. Dexamethasone protection was specifically associated with decreased expression of the same inflammatory mediators (CXC and CC-type chemokines and TNFα) linked to enhanced susceptibility caused by LPS. The studies reveal further details about the complex cascade of host-related events that are initiated by Stx2 as well as establish a new animal model system in which to investigate strategies for diminishing serious Stx2-mediated complications in humans infected with enterohemorrhagic E. coli strains.PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(6):e21457. · 4.09 Impact Factor
Article: Shiga Toxins: Intracellular Trafficking to the ER Leading to Activation of Host Cell Stress Responses.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Despite efforts to improve hygenic conditions and regulate food and drinking water safety, the enteric pathogens, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 remain major public health concerns due to widespread outbreaks and the severity of extra-intestinal diseases they cause, including acute renal failure and central nervous system complications. Shiga toxins are the key virulence factors expressed by these pathogens mediating extra-intestinal disease. Delivery of the toxins to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) results in host cell protein synthesis inhibition, activation of the ribotoxic stress response, the ER stress response, and in some cases, the induction of apoptosis. Intrinsic and/or extrinsic apoptosis inducing pathways are involved in executing cell death following intoxication. In this review we provide an overview of the current understanding Shiga toxin intracellular trafficking, host cellular responses to the toxin and ER stress-induced apoptosis with an emphasis on recent findings.Toxins. 06/2010; 2(6):1515-35.