Article

Fungal symbiosis in rice requires an ortholog of a legume common symbiosis gene encoding a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase.

Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40546, USA.
Plant physiology (Impact Factor: 7.39). 01/2008; 145(4):1619-28. DOI: 10.1104/pp.107.109876
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT In natural ecosystems, many plants are able to establish mutually beneficial symbioses with microorganisms. Of critical importance to sustainable agriculture are the symbioses formed between more than 80% of terrestrial plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and between legumes and nitrogen-fixing rhizobial bacteria. Interestingly, the two symbioses share overlapping signaling pathways in legumes, suggesting that the evolutionarily recent root nodule symbiosis may have acquired functions from the ancient AM symbiosis. The Medicago truncatula DMI3 (DOESN'T MAKE INFECTIONS3) gene (MtDMI3) and its orthologs in legumes are required for both bacterial and fungal symbioses. MtDMI3 encodes a Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK) essential for the transduction of the Ca(2+) signal induced by the perception of Nod factors. Putative orthologs of MtDMI3 are also present in non-legumes, but their function in AM symbiosis has not been demonstrated in any non-legume species. Here, we combine reverse genetic approaches and a cross-species complementation test to characterize the function of the rice (Oryza sativa) ortholog of MtDMI3, namely, OsDMI3, in AM symbiosis. We demonstrate that OsDMI3 is not only required for AM symbiosis in rice but also is able to complement a M. truncatula dmi3 mutant, indicating an equivalent role of MtDMI3 orthologs in non-legumes.

1 Follower
 · 
84 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Plant and animal genomics is a broad area of research with respect to the biological issues covered because it continues to deal with the structure and function of genetic material underpinning all organisms. This mini-review utilizes the plenary lectures from the Plant and Animal Genome Conference as a basis for summarizing the trends in the genome-level studies of organisms.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Biofertilizer is a microbial product containing millions of targeted efficient microorganisms for the bionutrient delivery to the crop through seed, soil or root application. It can be intensively promoted through intervention at technical level, industry level and farmer's level. These interventions include educating the farmers, proper availability of quality biofertilizer, application of biofertilizer in universal mode, enhancing the shelf life of product, designing new formulation, deciphering the relationship of micobe-plant interaction having diazotroph or AM fungi as a partner. The quest for self fertilizing cereals seems to be achievable with recent advancement in understanding the relationship of AM/RNS, identification of N 2 fixing organelles, oxygen resistant nitrogenase, nif gene and photosystem I containing cyanobacteria, cyanobacterial origin of plastids, conversion of endosymbionts into organelles by losing gene(s), synthesis of Myc factor analogue to Nod factor, occurrence of organelle formation in some organisms, more frequency of interorganism gene transfer between unrelated species in nature than previously thought, symbiosis without infection thread, root hair independent methods of rhizobial entry through cracks, structural similarity between Myc and Nod factor, conservation of sym pathway in rice, common sym pathway for rhizobial and mycorrhizal infection, occurrence of natural rhizobial endophyte in primitive rice, Oryza breviligulata, stable transformation techniques for chloroplast engineering and so on.
    12/2013: chapter 121: pages 448;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Establishment of arbuscular mycorrhizal interactions involves plant recognition of diffusible signals from the fungus, including lipochitooligosaccharides (LCOs) and chitooligosaccharides (COs). Nitrogen-fixing rhizobial bacteria that associate with leguminous plants also signal to their hosts via LCOs, the so-called Nod factors. Here, we have assessed the induction of symbiotic signaling by the arbuscular mycorrhizal (Myc) fungal-produced LCOs and COs in legumes and rice (Oryza sativa). We show that Myc-LCOs and tetra-acetyl chitotetraose (CO4) activate the common symbiosis signaling pathway, with resultant calcium oscillations in root epidermal cells of Medicago truncatula and Lotus japonicus. The nature of the calcium oscillations is similar for LCOs produced by rhizobial bacteria and by mycorrhizal fungi; however, Myc-LCOs activate distinct gene expression. Calcium oscillations were activated in rice atrichoblasts by CO4, but not the Myc-LCOs, whereas a mix of CO4 and Myc-LCOs activated calcium oscillations in rice trichoblasts. In contrast, stimulation of lateral root emergence occurred following treatment with Myc-LCOs, but not CO4, in M. truncatula, whereas both Myc-LCOs and CO4 were active in rice. Our work indicates that legumes and non-legumes differ in their perception of Myc-LCO and CO signals, suggesting that different plant species respond to different components in the mix of signals produced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

Preview (2 Sources)

Download
0 Downloads