Center for Integrated Protein Science Munich and Adolf Butenandt Institute, Department of Biochemistry, Laboratory for Neurodegenerative Disease Research, Ludwig Maximilians University, 80336 Munich, Germany.
Presenilin, the catalytic component of the gamma-secretase complex, type IV prepilin peptidases, and signal peptide peptidase (SPP) are the founding members of the family of intramembrane-cleaving GXGD aspartyl proteases. SPP-like (SPPL) proteases, such as SPPL2a, SPPL2b, SPPL2c, and SPPL3, also belong to the GXGD family. In contrast to gamma-secretase, for which numerous substrates have been identified, very few in vivo substrates are known for SPP and SPPLs. Here we demonstrate that Bri2 (Itm2b), a type II-oriented transmembrane protein associated with familial British and Danish dementia, undergoes regulated intramembrane proteolysis. In addition to the previously described ectodomain processing by furin and related proteases, we now describe that the Bri2 protein, similar to gamma-secretase substrates, undergoes an additional cleavage by ADAM10 in its ectodomain. This cleavage releases a soluble variant of Bri2, the BRICHOS domain, which is secreted into the extracellular space. Upon this shedding event, a membrane-bound Bri2 N-terminal fragment remains, which undergoes intramembrane proteolysis to produce an intracellular domain as well as a secreted low molecular weight C-terminal peptide. By expressing all known SPP/SPPL family members as well as their loss of function variants, we demonstrate that selectively SPPL2a and SPPL2b mediate the intramembrane cleavage, whereas neither SPP nor SPPL3 is capable of processing the Bri2 N-terminal fragment.
"The intramembrane protease Signal-peptide-peptidase-like 2a (SPPL2a) resides in lysosomes and late endosomes  and has been implicated in the processing of type 2 transmembrane proteins  including TNFa  , the Fas ligand , the Bri2 protein  and the invariant chain (CD74) of the MHCII complex . Among these, only the latter has been confirmed in vivo. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The invariant chain (CD74) mediates targeting of the MHCII complex to endosomal compartments, where CD74 undergoes degradation allowing MHCII to acquire peptides. We demonstrated recently that intramembrane proteolysis of the final membrane-bound N-terminal fragment (NTF) of CD74 is catalysed by Signal-peptide-peptidase-like 2a (SPPL2a) and that this process is indispensable for development and function of B lymphocytes in mice. In SPPL2a-/- mice, homeostasis of these cells is disturbed by the accumulation of the unprocessed CD74 NTF. So far, evidence for this essential role of SPPL2a is restricted to mice. Nevertheless, inhibition of SPPL2a has been suggested as novel approach to target B cells for treating autoimmunity. Here, we characterize human B cell lines with a homozygous microdeletion on chromosome 15. We demonstrate that this deletion disrupts the SPPL2a genomic locus and leads to loss of SPPL2a transcript. Lymphoblastoid cell lines from patients with this deletion exhibit absence of SPPL2a at the protein level and show an accumulation of the CD74 NTF comparable to B cells from SPPL2a-/- mice. By this means, we present evidence that the role of SPPL2a in CD74 proteolysis is conserved in human B cells and provide support for modulation of SPPL2a activity as a therapeutic concept.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 08/2014; 451(1). DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2014.07.051 · 2.30 Impact Factor
"Among the Itm2 family members, Itm2b is the most extensively studied protein. The ectodomain of Itm2b can undergo at least three steps of protease-mediated cleavage , . The first cleavage occurs at the C-terminus and is mediated by furin. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The integral membrane protein 2a (Itm2a) is one of the BRICHOS domain-containing proteins and is structurally related to Itm2b and Itm2c. It is expressed preferentially in the T lineage among hematopoietic cells and is induced by MHC-mediated positive selection. However, its transcriptional regulation and function are poorly understood. Here we showed Itm2a to be a target gene of GATA-3, a T cell-specific transcription factor. Deficiency of Itm2a had little impact on the development and function of polyclonal T cells but resulted in a partial defect in the development of thymocytes bearing a MHC class I-restricted TCR, OT-I. In addition, Itm2a-deficient mice displayed an attenuated T helper cell-dependent immune response in vivo. We further demonstrated that Itm2b but not Itm2c was also expressed in T cells, and was induced upon activation, albeit following a kinetic different from that of Itm2a. Thus, functional redundancy between Itm2a and Itm2b may explain the minimal phenotype of Itm2a deficiency.
PLoS ONE 05/2014; 9(5):e96535. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0096535 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"Shedding of FasL results in the release of a soluble cytokine (sFasL), that supposedly counteracts the apoptosis-inducing capacity of the membrane-anchored (mFasL) death factor [15–17]. For several substrates (including Notch, FasL and TNF), ectodomain shedding by ADAMs leaves N- or C-terminal fragments (NTFs or CTFs) in the plasma membrane that are further processed by secretases or related peptidases in a process termed regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP) [18–20]. It is believed that intramembrane proteolysis results in the release of signaling-capable intracellular domains (ICDs) from the N- or C-terminal remnants. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A disintegrin and metalloproteases (ADAMs) have been implicated in many processes controlling organismic development and integrity. Important substrates of ADAM proteases include growth factors, cytokines and their receptors and adhesion proteins. The inducible but irreversible cleavage of their substrates alters cell-cell communication and signaling. The crucial role of ADAM proteases (e.g. ADAM10 and 17) for mammalian development became evident from respective knockout mice, that displayed pre- or perinatal lethality with severe defects in many organs and tissues. Although many substrates for these two ADAM proteases were identified over the last decade, the regulation of their surface appearance, their enzymatic activity and their substrate specificity are still not well understood. We therefore analyzed the constitutive and inducible surface expression of ADAM10 and ADAM17 on a variety of human T cell and tumor cell lines. We demonstrate that ADAM10 is constitutively present at comparably high levels on the majority of the tested cell types. Stimulation with phorbol ester and calcium ionophore does not significantly alter the amount of surface ADAM10, except for a slight down-regulation from T cell blasts. Using FasL shedding as a readout for ADAM10 activity, we show that PKC activation and calcium mobilization are both prerequisite for activation of ADAM10 resulting in a production of soluble FasL. In contrast to ADAM10, the close relative ADAM17 is detected at only low levels on unstimulated cells. ADAM17 surface expression on T cell blasts is rapidly induced by stimulation. Since this inducible mobilization of ADAM17 is sensitive to inhibitors of actin filament formation, we propose that ADAM17 but not ADAM10 is prestored in a subcellular compartment that is transported to the cell surface in an activation- and actin-dependent manner.
PLoS ONE 10/2013; 8(10):e76853. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0076853 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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