Article

Remember and know judgments during recognition in chronic schizophrenia.

Department of Psychology, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.
Schizophrenia Research (Impact Factor: 4.43). 04/2008; 100(1-3):181-90. DOI: 10.1016/j.schres.2007.09.021
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Deficits in learning and memory are among the most robust correlates of schizophrenia. It has been hypothesized that these deficits are in part due to reduced conscious recollection and increased reliance on familiarity assessment as a basis for retrieval. The Remember-Know (R-K) paradigm was administered to 35 patients with chronic schizophrenia and 35 healthy controls. In addition to making "remember" and "know" judgments, the participants were asked to make forced-choice recognition judgments with regard to details about the learning episode. Analyses comparing response types showed a significant reduction in "remember" responses and a significant increase in "know" responses in schizophrenia patients relative to controls. Both patients and controls recalled more details of the learning episode for "remember" compared to "know" responses, although, in particular for "remember" responses, patients recalled fewer details compared with controls. Notably, patients recognized fewer inter-item but not intra-item stimulus features compared with controls. These findings suggest deficits in organizing and integrating relational information during the learning episode and/or using relational information for retrieval. A Dual-Process Signal Detection interpretation of these findings suggests that recollection in chronic schizophrenia is significantly reduced, while familiarity is not. Additionally, a unidimensional Signal Detection Theory interpretation suggests that chronic schizophrenia patients show a reduction in memory strength, and an altered criterion on the memory strength distribution for detecting new compared with old stimuli but not for detecting stimuli that are remembered versus familiar. Taken together, these findings are consistent with a deficit in recollection and increased reliance on familiarity in making recognition memory judgments in chronic schizophrenia.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
105 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia is associated with severe episodic retrieval impairment. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility that schizophrenia patients could improve their familiarity and/or recollection processes by manipulating the semantic coherence of to-be-learned stimuli and using deep encoding. Twelve schizophrenia patients and 12 healthy controls of comparable age, gender, and educational level undertook an associative recognition memory task. The stimuli consisted of pairs of words that were either related or unrelated to a given semantic category. The process dissociation procedure was used to calculate the estimates of familiarity and recollection processes. Both groups showed enhanced memory performances for semantically related words. However, in healthy controls, semantic relatedness led to enhanced recollection, while in schizophrenia patients, it induced enhanced familiarity. The familiarity estimates for related words were comparable in both groups, indicating that familiarity could be used as a compensatory mechanism in schizophrenia patients.
    Psychiatry Research 08/2014; · 2.68 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The psychic disintegration characteristic of schizophrenia is thought to result from a defective connectivity, of neurodevelopmental origin, between several integrative brain regions. The parahippocampal region and the prefrontal cortex are described as the main regions affected in schizophrenia. Interestingly, latent inhibition (LI) has been found to be reduced in patients with schizophrenia, and the existence of a dopaminergic dysfunction is also generally well accepted in this disorder. In the present review, we have integrated behavioral and neurochemical data obtained in a LI protocol involving adult rats subjected to neonatal functional inactivation of the entorhinal cortex, the ventral subiculum or the prefrontal cortex. The data discussed suggest a subtle and transient functional blockade during early development of the aforementioned brain regions is sufficient to induce schizophrenia-related behavioral and dopaminergic abnormalities in adulthood. In summary, these results support the view that our conceptual and methodological approach, based on functional disconnections, is valid for modeling some aspects of the pathophysiology of schizophrenia from a neurodevelopmental perspective.
    Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience 04/2014; 7:118. · 4.16 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Decades of research have provided robust evidence of cognitive impairments in psychotic disorders. Individuals with schizophrenia appear to be impaired on the majority of neuropsychological tasks, leading some researchers to argue for a “generalized deficit”, in which the multitude of cognitive impairments are the result of a common neurobiological source. One such common mechanism may be an inability to actively represent goal information in working memory as a means to guide behavior, with the associated neurobiological impairment being a disturbance in the function of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Here, we provide a discussion of the evidence for such impairment in schizophrenia, and how it manifests in domains typically referred to as cognitive control, working memory and episodic memory. We also briefly discuss cognitive impairment in affective psychoses, reporting that the degree of impairment is worse in schizophrenia than in bipolar disorder and psychotic major depression, but the profile of impairment is similar, possibly reflecting common mechanisms at the neural level. Given the recent release of the DSM-5, we end with a brief discussion on assessing cognition in the context of diagnosis and treatment planning in psychotic disorders.
    World Psychiatry. 10/2014; 13(3).

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
33 Downloads
Available from
Jun 4, 2014