Yersinia pestis, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia enterocolitica, utilize a plasmid encoded type III secretion system (T3SS) to promote infection by delivering Yersinia outer proteins (Yops) into the cytosol of mammalian cells. This T3SS is absolutely required for Yersinia virulence, which makes T3SS an attractive target in the development of novel therapeutics for treatment of plague and other Yersinia infections. In this study, a new method for high throughput screening (HTS) of small molecules for the ability to inhibit type III secretion (T3S) in Y. pestis has been developed. In comparison with screening assays employed by others, this method is very simple and rapid, and thus well suited for examining very large compound sets. Using this method, we screened a diverse collection of libraries at the US National Screening Laboratory. The initial examination of 70,966 compounds and mixtures from 13 libraries resulted in 431 primary hits. Strong positive indications of inhibition were observed at a rate of 0.01%, while moderate and weak but potentially meaningful signals were observed at rates of 0.056% and 0.54% respectively. Further characterizations were conducted on selected primary hits in Y. pestis. Of the eight compounds examined in secondary assays, four show good promise as leads for structure activity relationship studies. They are a diverse group, each having chemical scaffolds not only distinct from one another, but also distinct from previously described candidate T3S inhibitors.
"In recent years whole-cell based high-throughput screens have been performed to identify inhibitors of T3S systems (Gauthier et al., 2005; Kauppi et al., 2003; Pan et al., 2007). These screens have identified several classes of synthetic compounds and the natural product glycolipid caminosides, as active for inhibition of T3S in a broad range of Gram-negative bacterial pathogens, including Yersinia, Chlamydia and Salmonella (Gauthier et al., 2005; Kauppi et al., 2003; Linington et al., 2006; Linington et al., 2002; Negrea et al., 2007; Nordfelth et al., 2005; Wolf et al., 2006). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bacterial virulence mechanisms are attractive targets for antibiotic development because they are required for the pathogenesis of numerous global infectious disease agents. The bacterial secretion systems used to assemble the surface structures that promote adherence and deliver protein virulence effectors to host cells could comprise one such therapeutic target. In this study, we developed and performed a high-throughput screen of small molecule libraries and identified one compound, a 2-imino-5-arylidene thiazolidinone that blocked secretion and virulence functions of a wide array of animal and plant Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. This compound inhibited type III secretion-dependent functions, with the exception of flagellar motility, and type II secretion-dependent functions, suggesting that its target could be an outer membrane component conserved between these two secretion systems. This work provides a proof of concept that compounds with a broad spectrum of activity against Gram-negative bacterial secretion systems could be developed to prevent and treat bacterial diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In recent years mounting problems related to antibiotic-resistant bacteria have resulted in the prediction that we are entering the preantibiotic era. A way of preventing such a development would be to introduce novel antibacterial medicines with modes of action distinct from conventional antibiotics. Recent studies of bacterial virulence factors and toxins have resulted in increased understanding of the way in which pathogenic bacteria manipulate host cellular processes. This knowledge may now be used to develop novel antibacterial medicines that disarm pathogenic bacteria. The type III secretion system (T3SS) is known to be a potent virulence mechanism shared by a broad spectrum of pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria that interact with human, animal and plant hosts by injecting effector proteins into the cytosol of host cells. Diseases, such as bubonic plague, shigellosis, salmonellosis, typhoid fever, pulmonary infections, sexually transmitted chlamydia and diarrhoea largely depend on the bacterial proteins injected by the T3SS machinery. Recently a number of T3SS inhibitors have been identified using screening-based approaches. One class of inhibitors, the salicylidene acylhydrazides, has been subjected to chemical optimization and evaluation in several in vitro and ex vivo assays in multiple bacterial species including Yersinia spp., Chlamydia spp., Salmonella spp. and Pseudotuberculosis aeruginosa. Reports published up to date indicate that T3SS inhibitors have the potential to be developed into novel antibacterial therapeutics.
Journal of Internal Medicine 08/2008; 264(1):17-29. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2796.2008.01941.x · 6.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Type III secretion systems (T3SSs) are essential virulence devices for many gram-negative bacteria that are pathogenic for plants, animals, and humans. They serve to translocate virulence effector proteins directly into eukaryotic host cells. T3SSs are composed of a large cytoplasmic bulb and a transmembrane region into which a needle is embedded, protruding above the bacterial surface. The emerging antibiotic resistance of bacterial pathogens urges the development of novel strategies to fight bacterial infections. Therapeutics that rather than kill bacteria only attenuate their virulence may reduce the frequency or progress of resistance emergence. Recently, a group of salicylidene acylhydrazides were identified as inhibitors of T3SSs in Yersinia, Chlamydia, and Salmonella species. Here we show that these are also effective on the T3SS of Shigella flexneri, where they block all related forms of protein secretion so far known, as well as the epithelial cell invasion and induction of macrophage apoptosis usually demonstrated by this bacterium. Furthermore, we show the first evidence for the detrimental effect of these compounds on T3SS needle assembly, as demonstrated by increased numbers of T3S apparatuses without needles or with shorter needles. Therefore, the compounds generate a phenocopy of T3SS export apparatus mutants but with incomplete penetrance. We discuss why this would be sufficient to almost completely block the later secretion of effector proteins and how this begins to narrow the search for the molecular target of these compounds.
Journal of bacteriology 12/2008; 191(2):563-70. DOI:10.1128/JB.01004-08 · 2.81 Impact Factor
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