Edaravone, a Potent Free Radical Scavenger, Prevents Anthracycline-Induced Myocardial Cell Death
Department of Pediatrics, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo, Japan. Circulation Journal
(Impact Factor: 3.94).
12/2007; 71(11):1815-20. DOI: 10.1253/circj.71.1815
It was investigated whether edaravone, a potent free radical scavenger, would protect against anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity and prevent cardiac function deterioration.
Cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were stimulated by daunorubicin 1 mumol/L either with or without edaravone or superoxide dismutase mimetic Mn (III) tetrakis (1-methyl-4-pyridyl) porphyrin pentachloride (MnTMPyP). Cell viability was estimated by measuring the amount of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) released into the culture medium. Apoptosis was determined by a caspase-3 activity assay and a histone - DNA complex fragment assay. To investigate whether edaravone interfered with daunorubicin's anti-tumor effect, daunorubicin and edaravone were added to human leukemia K562 cells, and the surviving cells were counted. In addition, edaravone's in vivo effect was evaluated using Sprague - Dawley rats. A total of 15 mg/kg doxorubicin was injected intraperitoneally either with or without simultaneous edaravone injection. Two and 6 weeks after the final injection, left ventricular diastolic diameter and left ventricular fraction shortening were assessed echocardiographically. The LDH assay showed that edaravone significantly inhibited LDH release from cardiac myocytes (p=0.0428). The caspase-3 activity and histone - DNA complex fragment assays demonstrated that edaravone's apoptosis suppression effect was much weaker than that of MnTMPyP. The in vivo study showed that edaravone prevented doxorubicin-induced cardiac deterioration. Finally, edaravone was found to not affect daunorubicin's anticancer effect on K562 cells.
Edaravone protects cardiomyocytes from anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity via an anti-necrotic rather than an anti-apoptotic effect.
Available from: Lei Wei
- "The use of free radical scavengers protected cardiomyocytes from anthracycline induced necrosis (Ikegami et al. 2007). The rationale is that increased ROS leads to mitochondrial calcium overloading, promotes MPT pore opening, causes mitochondrial swelling and ATP depletion, and hence triggers necrotic cell death (Dorn 2009; Gustafsson and Gottlieb 2008). "
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ABSTRACT: Doxorubicin (DOX) is one of the most widely used and successful antitumor drugs, but its cumulative and dose-dependent cardiac toxicity has been a major concern of oncologists in cancer therapeutic practice for decades. With the increasing population of cancer survivors, there is a growing need to develop preventive strategies and effective therapies against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity, in particular late-onset cardiomyopathy. Although intensive investigations on DOX-induced cardiotoxicity have continued for decades, the underlying mechanisms responsible for DOX-induced cardiotoxicity have not been completely elucidated. A rapidly expanding body of evidence supports the notion that cardiomyocyte death by apoptosis and necrosis is a primary mechanism of DOX-induced cardiomyopathy and that other types of cell death, such as autophagy and senescence/aging, may participate in this process. This review focuses on the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying DOX-induced cardiomyocyte death, including the major primary mechanism of excess production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and other recently discovered ROS-independent mechanisms. The different sensitivities to DOX-induced cell death signals between adult and young cardiomyocytes will also be discussed.
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis 10/2009; 57(6):435-45. DOI:10.1007/s00005-009-0051-8 · 3.18 Impact Factor
Available from: Roberto Dominici
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ABSTRACT: Chemotherapy is a well established therapeutic approach for several malignancies, but its clinical efficacy is often limited by related cardiotoxicity leading to cardiomyopathy evolving towards heart failure that may worsen the patient outcome. To detect cardiac damage, the most frequently adopted diagnostic approach is the estimation of left ventricular ejection fraction by echocardiography, showing, however, low sensitivity in early prediction of cardiomyopathy, when appropriate treatments could still improve the patient's outcome. Cardiospecific biomarkers, like cardiac troponins, show high diagnostic efficacy in the early, subclinical phase of disease, becoming positive approximately 3 months before clinical onset of cardiomyopathy. Furthermore, the increase in their concentrations is well correlated with the disease severity and may predict the occurrence of major cardiac events during follow-up. On the other hand, negative troponin concentrations may identify patients with a very low risk of cardiomyopathy (negative predictive value = 99%). For cardiac natriuretic peptides, definitive evidence about a diagnostic or prognostic role in predicting chemotherapy-induced cardiomyopathy is lacking and their practical use in this context cannot be recommended until their clinical efficacy is clearly defined.
Giornale italiano di cardiologia (2006) 10/2006; 7(9):604-11. DOI:10.1309/AJCPB66LRIIVMQDR
Available from: Tomohide Takaya
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ABSTRACT: Doxorubicin (Dox) depletes p300 from cardiac myocytes and induces apoptosis of these cells. p300 protein possesses ubiquitin ligase activity for the p53 tumor suppressor gene product, catalyzes p53 polyubiqutination, and facilitates p53 degradation in an ubiquitin-dependent manner. The present study investigated the ubiquitin-dependent regulation of p53 by Dox and p300 in cardiac myocytes.
Primary cardiac myocytes from neonatal rats were exposed to a proteasome inhibitor, MG132, in culture. MG132 increased both p300 and p53 protein levels in these cells, suggesting that ubiquitin-dependent degradation is involved in the homeostasis of these proteins. Notably, treatment of cardiac myocytes with Dox decreased the protein levels of p300 but markedly increased those of p53. By immunoprecipitation-Western blotting, it was shown that treatment with Dox decreased poly-ubiquitinated p53 but increased that of p300 in cardiac myocytes. Finally, the overexpression of p300 in cardiomyocytes suppressed the Dox-mediated increase in the p53 level in addition to inhibiting Dox-induced apoptosis.
Dox reciprocally regulates p300 and p53 through ubiquitin-dependent pathways and that p300, by its ubiquitin ligase activity, is partially involved in the ubiquitin-dependent degradation of p53 in cardiac myocytes.
Circulation Journal 10/2008; 72(9):1506-11. DOI:10.1253/circj.CJ-07-1076 · 3.94 Impact Factor
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