Analysis of Time-Related Metabolic Fluctuations Induced by Ethionine in the Rat
ABSTRACT The time-course of metabolic events following response to a model hepatotoxin ethionine (800 mg/kg) was investigated over a 7 day period in rats using high-resolution (1)H NMR spectroscopic analysis of urine and multivariate statistics. Complementary information was obtained by multivariate analysis of (1)H MAS NMR spectra of intact liver and by conventional histopathology and clinical chemistry of blood plasma. (1)H MAS NMR spectra of liver showed toxin-induced lipidosis 24 h postdose consistent with the steatosis observed by histopathology, while hypertaurinuria was suggestive of liver injury. Early biochemical changes in urine included elevation of guanidinoacetate, suggesting impaired methylation reactions. Urinary increases in 5-oxoproline and glycine suggested disruption of the gamma-glutamyl cycle. Signs of ATP depletion together with impairment of the energy metabolism were given from the decreased levels in tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, the appearance of ketone bodies in urine, the depletion of hepatic glucose and glycogen, and also hypoglycemia. The observed increase in nicotinuric acid in urine could be an indication of an increase in NAD catabolism, a possible consequence of ATP depletion. Effects on the gut microbiota were suggested by the observed urinary reductions in the microbial metabolites 3-/4-hydroxyphenyl propionic acid, dimethylamine, and tryptamine. At later stages of toxicity, there was evidence of kidney damage, as indicated by the tubular damage observed by histopathology, supported by increased urinary excretion of lactic acid, amino acids, and glucose. These studies have given new insights into mechanisms of ethionine-induced toxicity and show the value of multisystem level data integration in the understanding of experimental models of toxicity or disease.
Progress in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy 08/2009; 55(2):79-100. DOI:10.1016/j.pnmrs.2008.11.004 · 8.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Understanding the basal gut bacterial community structure and the host metabolic composition is pivotal for the interpretation of laboratory treatments designed to answer questions pertinent to host-microbes interactions. In this study, we report for the first time the underlying gut microbiota and systemic metabolic composition in BALB/c mice during the acclimatisation period. Our results showed that stress levels were reduced in the first three days of the study when the animals were subjected to repetitive handling daily but the stress levels were increased when handling was carried out at lower frequencies (weekly). We also observed a strong influence of stress to the host metabolism and commensal compositional variability. In addition, temporal biological compartmental variations in the responses were observed. Based on these results, we suggest that consistency in frequency and duration of laboratory handling is crucial in murine models to minimise the impact of stress levels to the commensal and host metabolism dynamics. Furthermore, caution is advised in consideration of the temporal delay effect when integrating metagenomics and metabonomics data across different biological matrices (i.e. faeces and urine).Molecular BioSystems 10/2014; 11(1). DOI:10.1039/C4MB00463A · 3.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Erythromycin estolate (EE), a macrolide antibiotic, has caused hepatotoxicity both in human and experimental animals. The objective of this study was to integrate general toxicology, transcriptomics, and metabonomics approaches to determine the mechanisms of EE-induced liver injury. Histopathological examinations unveiled dose-dependent hydropicdegenerationof hepatocytes after EE administration. Further biochemical analysis of treated rats confirmed that cholestasis and oxidative stress were induced by EE treatments. Microarray analysis of the livers from EE-treated rats showed that differentially expressed genes were enriched in the ABC transporters, cell cycle, and p53 signaling pathways. Metabonomics analysis revealed that EE exposure could lead to disturbances in energy metabolism, amino acid metabolism, lipid metabolism, and nucleotide metabolism, which may be attributable to EE toxicological effects on the liver through oxidative stress. 5-oxoproline may be used as a biomarker of EE-induced liver injury. More importantly, the integrated analysis of transcriptomics and metabonomics datasets demonstrated that the induction of ABC transporters pathway severed as an anti-cholestatic adaptive mechanism in EE-induced cholestasis. In addition, EE-induced liver injury was also related to alteration in glycogen and sucrose metabolism, arachidonic acid metabolism, and linoleic acid metabolism pathways.Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 01/2014; 65. DOI:10.1016/j.fct.2013.12.050 · 2.61 Impact Factor