Based on their ability to control T-cell homeostasis, Foxp3(+)CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) are being considered for treatment of autoimmune disorders and acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD). When combining Tregs with the immunosuppressant rapamycin (RAPA), we observed reduced alloreactive conventional T-cell (Tconv) expansion and aGVHD lethality compared with each treatment alone. This synergistic in vivo protection was paralleled by intact expansion of polyclonal Tregs with conserved high FoxP3 expression. In contrast to Tconv, activation of Tregs with alloantigen and interleukin-2 preferentially led to signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) phosphorylation and not phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway activity. Expression of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN), a negative regulator of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway, remained high in Tregs but not Tconv during stimulation. Conversely, targeted deletion of PTEN increased susceptibility of Tregs to mTOR inhibition by RAPA. Differential impact of RAPA as a result of reduced usage of the mTOR pathway in Tregs compared with conventional T cells explains the synergistic effect of RAPA and Tregs in aGVHD protection, which has important implications for clinical trials using Tregs.
"While IL-2 and TGF-β increased the percentage of CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ T cells, the addition of rapamycin markedly enhanced this effect (Figures 2(a) and 2(b)). These data were consistent with previous studies, which showed that rapamycin favored Foxp3 expression and promoted the suppressive activity of iTreg cells [19–21, 23]. Then, we observed a distinct population of FoxP3high cells, which is defined as FoxP3++ cells. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been shown that rapamycin is able to significantly increase the expression of FoxP3 and suppress activity in induced Treg (iTreg) cells in vivo and in vitro. CD39 is a newly determined Treg marker that relates to cell suppression. Runx1, a regulator of FoxP3, controls the expression of adenosine deaminase (ADA) gene, which is found recently in the downstream of CD39 pathway in trophoblast cells. Whether rapamycin would influence CD39 pathway and regulate the expression of Runx1 remains to be
determined. The addition of rapamycin to human CD4+ naïve cells in the presence of IL-2, TGF-β promotes the expression of FoxP3. In this paper, we found that CD39 positively correlated with the FoxP3 expression in iTreg cells. Rapamycin induced iTreg cells showed a stronger CD39/Runx1 expression with the enhanced suppressive function. These data suggested that CD39 expression was involved in iTreg generation and the enhanced suppressive ability of rapamycin induced Treg was partly due to Runx1 pathway. We conclude that rapamycin favors CD39/Runx1 expression in human iTreg and provides a novel insight into the mechanisms of iTreg generation enhanced by rapamycin.
Journal of Immunology Research 03/2014; 2014:989434. DOI:10.1155/2014/989434 · 2.93 Impact Factor
"However, why pre-existing nTregs were also expanded by IL-2 and Rapa in allogeneic BMT is unclear, as Rapa partially inhibited Treg proliferation in vitro even in the presence of anti-CD3. One possibility is that Rapa has a strong negative effect on Tconvs , , leading to an increased Treg:Tconv ratio that allowed IL-2 to expand Tregs more efficiently. However, our data suggest that only CD8+ Tconvs and not CD4+ Tconvs are affected by Rapa plus IL-2 treatment. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Regulatory T cells (Treg)s attenuate excessive immune responses, making their expansion beneficial in immune-mediated diseases including allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT)-associated graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). We have recently reported that Treg expansion does not require phospholipase Cγ activation when IL-2 is provided. As such, the combination of IL-2 and a calcineurin inhibitor (Cyclosporine A; CsA) expands Tregs while inhibiting Tconv proliferation and protects against a mouse model of multiple sclerosis. However, CsA inhibits Treg proliferation in the presence of a TCR stimulus, suggesting that CsA may negatively impact Treg proliferation when they receive strong allogeneic MHC-mediated TCR signals. In this study, we show that CsA inhibits Treg proliferation and inducible Treg generation in allogeneic but not in syngeneic BMT when IL-2 is provided. In contrast to CsA, the mTOR inhibitor (Rapamycin) almost completely suppressed IL-2-mediated Treg proliferation. However, CsA and Rapamycin inhibited Treg proliferation to a similar extent when TCR stimulation was provided. Furthermore, Rapamycin promoted Treg expansion and inducible Treg generation in allogeneic BMT recipients treated with IL-2. Consistent with these observations, CsA abrogated while Rapamycin promoted the protective effect of IL-2 on allogeneic BMT-induced GVHD. These results suggest that while CsA permits IL-2-induced Treg proliferation in the syngeneic setting (absence of strong TCR signals), CsA in combination with IL-2 may be detrimental for Treg proliferation in an allogeneic setting. Thus, in allogeneic settings, an mTOR inhibitor such as Rapamycin is a better choice for adjunct therapy with IL-2 in expansion of Tregs and protection against allogeneic BMT-induced GVHD.
PLoS ONE 03/2014; 9(3):e92888. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0092888 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"IL-2-dependent STAT-5 activates Tregs (64), whereas effector T cells employ the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt/mTOR pathway (65). The mTOR inhibitor rapamycin exploits the latter pathway to preferentially expand Tregs (66–68). Clinically, rapamycin increases the number of CD62Lhigh Tregs in the peripheral blood of lung transplant recipients (20) and expands the Treg population in renal transplant patients (69). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Regulatory T cells (Tregs) suppress exuberant immune system activation and promote immunologic tolerance. Because Tregs modulate both innate and adaptive immunity, the biomedical community has developed an intense interest in using Tregs for immunotherapy. Conditions that require clinical tolerance to improve outcomes - autoimmune disease, solid organ transplantation, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation - may benefit from Treg immunotherapy. Investigators have designed ex vivo strategies to isolate, preserve, expand, and infuse Tregs. Protocols to manipulate Treg populations in vivo have also been considered. Barriers to clinically feasible Treg immunotherapy include Treg stability, off-cell effects, and demonstration of cell preparation purity and potency. Clinical trials involving Treg adoptive transfer to treat graft versus host disease preliminarily demonstrated the safety and efficacy of Treg immunotherapy in humans. Future work will need to confirm the safety of Treg immunotherapy and establish the efficacy of specific Treg subsets for the treatment of immune-mediated disease.
Frontiers in Immunology 02/2014; 5:46. DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2014.00046
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