Management of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders
ABSTRACT Pediatricians have an important role not only in early recognition and evaluation of autism spectrum disorders but also in chronic management of these disorders. The primary goals of treatment are to maximize the child's ultimate functional independence and quality of life by minimizing the core autism spectrum disorder features, facilitating development and learning, promoting socialization, reducing maladaptive behaviors, and educating and supporting families. To assist pediatricians in educating families and guiding them toward empirically supported interventions for their children, this report reviews the educational strategies and associated therapies that are the primary treatments for children with autism spectrum disorders. Optimization of health care is likely to have a positive effect on habilitative progress, functional outcome, and quality of life; therefore, important issues, such as management of associated medical problems, pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic intervention for challenging behaviors or coexisting mental health conditions, and use of complementary and alternative medical treatments, are also addressed.
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- "walking and first words) (Wetherby, Brosnan-Maddox, Peace, & Newton, 2008). Further, while there has been a reported increase in screening for ASD since the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendation for screening of all children at 18 and 24 months of age (Myers & Johnson, 2007), the rate of screening remains low. In a 2012 study, a sample of 157 primary care physicians reported a 55% consistent use of autism screening tools (Keil, Breunig, Fleischfresser, & Oftedahl), up from 28% in 2009 (Gillis, 2009), and up from 8% in 2006 (DosReis, Weiner, Johnson, & Newschaffer, 2006). "
ABSTRACT: Autism diagnosis rates trail significantly in the African American community. This pre-test post-test pilot study evaluated an African American inner-city church health ambassadors (HAs) autism spectrum disorder (ASD) awareness training session. The participants included 12 HAs who attended the 1hour training session organized by the National Baptist Convention, USA, Inc. Results of surveys showed higher mean scores post training for (1) HA attitudes about the potential for children to improve with applied behavior analysis therapy; (2) HA self-efficacy for having information about ASD screening materials; (3) strategies HAs could use to help parents/caregivers of children with developmental delays and challenging behaviors; (4) HA confidence in referrals for children with signs of ASD; (5) HA knowledge of measures to take to maximize a child's chance of receiving an ASD evaluation; and (6) HA comfort for talking to parents about children with challenging behaviors. Several of these effects were maintained 3months later. Findings underscore the usefulness of the intervention for increasing the dissemination of knowledge about ASD and the opportunity to positively affect ASD screening, early intervention, and policy standards applicable to this vulnerable population. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.Journal of pediatric nursing 05/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.pedn.2015.04.008 · 1.01 Impact Factor
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- "Treatments based in ABA such as early intensive behavior intervention (EIBI) and discrete trial training (DTT) are among the most frequently used and have been demonstrated to result in increases in academic achievement, adaptive behavior skills, and social skills (Myers & Johnson, 2007) as well as specific verbal and language skills (e.g., Greer, Yaun, & Gautreaux, 2005; Yamamoto & Mochizuki, 1988). Furthermore, the implementation of these treatments is not restricted to trained behavior analysts. "
ABSTRACT: The past few decades of research in autism spectrum disorders have been successful in developing effective behavioral treatments; however, the psychometrics of these strategies has not been documented well in applied settings. The current experiment evaluated the relationship between established measures of language skills (receptive and expressive one-word picture vocabulary test; ROWPVT-4 and EOWPVT-4, respectively) and a recently released assessment and curriculum tool designed to teach instructional skills using a behavior analytic approach (promoting the emergence of advanced knowledge relational training system; PEAK). Each participant was administered three assessments: The PEAK direct training module assessment, the ROWPVT-4 assessment, and the EOWPVT-4 assessment. Scores from all three assessments were compared to assess the relationship between each assessment. The results indicated both a strong correlation between the PEAK direct training module and commonly used language assessments (ROWPVT-4 and EOWPVT-4), as well as strong reliability in the administration of the assessments.Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders 04/2015; 12. DOI:10.1016/j.rasd.2014.12.007 · 2.96 Impact Factor
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- "Carter 2008; May-Benson and Koomar 2010; Smith, Mruzek, and Mozingo 2005), as well as integrative reviews examining primary sources and/or previous syntheses (e.g., American Association of Pediatrics 2001; Hoehn and Baumeister 1994; Hyatt, Stephenson, and Carter 2009; Maine Administrators of Services for Children with Disabilities 2000; Myers and Johnson 2007; National Autism Center 2009; National Research Council (Ed.) 2001; Perry and Condillac 2003; Roberts, Prior, Rodger, and Williams 2011; Simpson 2005; Williames and Erdie-Lalana 2009) but only two published meta-analyses (Ottenbacher 1982; Vargas and Camilli 1999). Although there have been some dissenting opinions (e.g., May-Benson and Koomar 2010; Ottenbacher 1982), the consensus of the majority of reviews is there is only weak evidence to support the use of SIT for people with disabilities. "
ABSTRACT: Sensory integration therapy (SIT) is a widely used intervention for people with disabilities to address educationally related outcomes and has been subject to ongoing controversy. The outcomes from 30 comparison group studies on sensory integration therapy for people with, or at-risk of, a developmental or learning disability, disorder, or delay were reviewed and analyzed. Studies comparing SIT to no treatment yielded a statistically significant but small effect. However, when SIT was compared to alternative interventions, differences were non-significant. Numerous methodological flaws were identified, such as issues in clearly defining treatment and evaluating integrity, poor quality of research, and diversity of outcome measures. There was little evidence that SIT was an effective intervention for any diagnostic group, particularly when functional blinded outcome measures were examined. Minimum methodological requirements for any future research studies are discussed.Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities 04/2015; 27(2). DOI:10.1007/s10882-014-9408-y · 1.56 Impact Factor