Calculation of MRI-induced heating of an implanted medical lead wire with an electric field transfer function
ABSTRACT To develop and demonstrate a method to calculate the temperature rise that is induced by the radio frequency (RF) field in MRI at the electrode of an implanted medical lead.
The electric field near the electrode is calculated by integrating the product of the tangential electric field and a transfer function along the length of the lead. The transfer function is numerically calculated with the method of moments. Transfer functions were calculated at 64 MHz for different lengths of model implants in the form of bare wires and insulated wires with 1 cm of wire exposed at one or both ends.
Heating at the electrode depends on the magnitude and the phase distribution of the transfer function and the incident electric field along the length of the lead. For a uniform electric field, the electrode heating is maximized for a lead length of approximately one-half a wavelength when the lead is terminated open. The heating can be greater for a worst-case phase distribution of the incident field.
The transfer function is proposed as an efficient method to calculate MRI-induced heating at an electrode of a medical lead. Measured temperature rises of a model implant in a phantom were in good agreement with the rises predicted by the transfer function. The transfer function could be numerically or experimentally determined.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This paper presents a novel technique for the efficient evaluation of MRI-induced electric fields in the vicinity of implantable metallic leads. The technique is based on the reciprocity theorem in conjuncture with the Huygens principle that allows one to separate the micro-scale modeling of the metallic lead from the macro-level modeling of human subjects within MRI scanners. In addition to the numerical efficiency, this approach clearly explains the lead heating mechanism during MRI operations. Numerical examples are used to demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of this proposed approach.Wireless and Microwave Circuits and Systems (WMCS), 2013 Texas Symposium on; 01/2013
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To assess the current knowledge about the potential hazard from MRI in patients with devices such as pacemakers and implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs). Most data concern 'MRI unsafe' devices, with only a few studies on 'MRI conditional' devices. No 'MRI safe' cardiac devices are currently available. Studies on 'MRI unsafe' devices tend to be small scale and reflect the experience of individual centres; few provide long-term follow-up data. Many newer devices are approved as 'MRI conditional' based on technical simulations or postmarket surveillance studies. With adequate measures taken before performing an MRI scan, reported complication rates are generally low, but there is a nonnegligible residual risk for power-on reset and lead heating. The presence of abandoned, older leads may affect the propensity for lead heating during MRI with newer devices, including those designated 'MRI conditional'. Very little research has been carried out on the hazard from MRI scans in patients with ICDs, but registry data indicate more events with ICDs than with pacemakers. The limited available data indicate a manageable but not negligible MRI-associated hazard in patients with implantable cardiac devices. Further controlled studies and large, independent registries, particularly in Europe, are needed to provide important safety information.Current Opinion in Cardiology 01/2015; 30(1):65-73. DOI:10.1097/HCO.0000000000000132 · 2.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In the last decade, there have been significant developments into integration of robots and automation tools with brachytherapy delivery systems. These systems aim to improve the current paradigm by executing higher precision and accuracy in seed placement, improving calculation of optimal seed locations, minimizing surgical trauma, and reducing radiation exposure to medical staff. Most of the applications of this technology have been in the implantation of seeds in patients with early-stage prostate cancer. Nevertheless, the techniques apply to any clinical site where interstitial brachytherapy is appropriate. In consideration of the rapid developments in this area, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) commissioned Task Group 192 to review the state-of-the-art in the field of robotic interstitial brachytherapy. This is a joint Task Group with the Groupe Européen de Curiethérapie-European Society for Radiotherapy & Oncology (GEC-ESTRO). All developed and reported robotic brachytherapy systems were reviewed. Commissioning and quality assurance procedures for the safe and consistent use of these systems are also provided. Manual seed placement techniques with a rigid template have an estimated in vivo accuracy of 3-6 mm. In addition to the placement accuracy, factors such as tissue deformation, needle deviation, and edema may result in a delivered dose distribution that differs from the preimplant or intraoperative plan. However, real-time needle tracking and seed identification for dynamic updating of dosimetry may improve the quality of seed implantation. The AAPM and GEC-ESTRO recommend that robotic systems should demonstrate a spatial accuracy of seed placement ≤1.0 mm in a phantom. This recommendation is based on the current performance of existing robotic brachytherapy systems and propagation of uncertainties. During clinical commissioning, tests should be conducted to ensure that this level of accuracy is achieved. These tests should mimic the real operating procedure as closely as possible. Additional recommendations on robotic brachytherapy systems include display of the operational state; capability of manual override; documented policies for independent check and data verification; intuitive interface displaying the implantation plan and visualization of needle positions and seed locations relative to the target anatomy; needle insertion in a sequential order; robot-clinician and robot-patient interactions robustness, reliability, and safety while delivering the correct dose at the correct site for the correct patient; avoidance of excessive force on radioactive sources; delivery confirmation of the required number or position of seeds; incorporation of a collision avoidance system; system cleaning, decontamination, and sterilization procedures. These recommendations are applicable to end users and manufacturers of robotic brachytherapy systems.Medical Physics 10/2014; 41(10):101501. DOI:10.1118/1.4895013 · 3.01 Impact Factor