Identification of a bioactive impurity in a commercial sample of 6-methyl-2-p-tolylaminobenzo[d][1,3]oxazin-4-one (URB754).
ABSTRACT The compound URB754 was recently identified as a potent inhibitor of the endocannabinoid-deactivating enzyme monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL) by screening of a commercial chemical library. Based on HPLC/MS, NMR and EI/MS analyses, the present paper shows that the MGL-inhibitory activity attributed to URB754 is in fact due to a chemical impurity present in the commercial sample, identified as bis(methylthio)mercurane. Although this organomercurial compound is highly potent at inhibiting MGL (IC50 = 11.9 +/- 1.1 nM), its biological use is prohibited by its toxicity and target promiscuity.
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ABSTRACT: The biochemical modification of the metals and metalloids mercury, tin, arsenic, antimony, bismuth, selenium, and tellurium via formation of volatile metal hydrides and alkylated species (volatile and involatile) performs a fundamental role in determining the environmental processing of these elements. In most instances, the formation of such species increases the environmental mobility of the element, and can result in bioaccumulation in lipophilic environments. While inorganic forms of most of these compounds are well characterized (e.g., arsenic, mercury) and some of them exhibit low toxicity (e.g., tin, bismuth), the more lipid-soluble organometals can be highly toxic. Methylmercury poisoning (e.g., Minamata disease) and tumor development in rats after exposure to dimethylarsinic acid or tributyltin oxide are just some examples. Data on the genotoxicity (and the neurotoxicity) as well as the mechanisms of cellular action of organometal(loid) compounds are, however, scarce. Many studies have shown that the production of such organometal(loid) species is possible and likely whenever anaerobic conditions (at least on a microscale) are combined with available metal(loid)s and methyl donors in the presence of suitable organisms. Such anaerobic conditions can exist within natural environments (e.g., wetlands, pond sediments) as well as within anthropogenic environmental systems (e.g., waste disposal sites and sewage treatments plants). Some methylation can also take place under aerobic conditions. This article gives an overview about the environmental distribution of organometal(loid) compounds and the potential hazardous effects on animal and human health. Genotoxic effects in vivo and in vitro in particular are discussed.Critical Reviews in Toxicology 01/2004; 34(3):301-33. · 6.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The effects of anadamide, 2-arachidonoylglycerol and related compounds on the specific binding of a radiolabeled cannabinoid receptor ligand,[3H]CP55940, to synaptosomal membranes were examined. Anandamide, an endogenous cannabinoid receptor ligand, reduced the specific binding of [3H]CP55940 to synaptosomal membranes in a dose-dependent manner: the Ki value was 89 nM. 2-Arachidonoylglycerol was also shown to bind appreciably to the cannabinoid receptor in competitive inhibition experiments. The apparent binding affinity was markedly increased when the binding assay was carried out in the presence of the esterase inhibitor DFP or at 0 degrees C. Free arachidonic acid and N-palmitoylethanolamine were almost inactive in terms of binding to the cannabinoid receptor in synaptosomal membranes. 2-Arachidonoylglycerol may be an endogenous cannabinoid receptor ligand in the brain.Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 11/1995; 215(1):89-97. · 2.41 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Endogenous 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) inhibits invasion of androgen-independent prostate cancer cells. Blocking cellular hydrolysis of 2-AG to increase its endogenous concentration results in a decrease in cell invasion. A series of compounds containing a trifluoromethyl ketone (TFK) moiety or the methyl analog (known to inhibit carboxylesterases) were investigated for their ability to inhibit 2-AG hydrolysis and prostate cancer cell invasion. Compounds containing a thioether beta to a TFK moiety inhibited 2-AG hydrolysis as well as cell invasion in a concentration-dependent manner. Inhibition of 2-AG hydrolysis increased concomitantly with inhibitor alkyl chain length from 4- to 12-carbons while inhibition of cell invasion exhibited a maximum at 8- to 10-carbons of the compounds. These results demonstrate a new series of 2-AG hydrolysis inhibitors as a potential therapeutic approach for prostate cancer.Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 08/2005; 332(4):1028-33. · 2.41 Impact Factor