Lower early mortality rate among patients receiving antiretroviral treatment at clinics offering cotrimoxazole prophylaxis in Malawi
ABSTRACT To determine whether Malawi antiretroviral treatment (ART) clinics providing cotrimoxazole (CTX) prophylaxis had lower early mortality rates compared with clinics not providing CTX.
Retrospective cohort study of eleven ART clinics in Malawi that were or were not providing CTX. Medical record abstraction was performed for all patients (N = 1295) initiating ART between July 1 and December 15, 2005. At 5 ART sites, CTX was given to patients dosed at 960 mg daily or 480 mg twice a day (according to national guidelines).
When all defaults (patients lost to follow-up for >90 days) were excluded from the analysis, the 6-month mortality rate was 10.7% in patients receiving ART at CTX clinics compared with 18.0% in those not at CTX clinics (6-month mortality risk reduction = 40.7%; P = 0.0013). Kaplan-Meier survival curves for patients receiving CTX and patients not receiving CTX were significantly different; survival differences were apparent as early as 40 to 45 days after initiation of ART.
Patients receiving ART in Malawi at clinics offering CTX prophylaxis had significantly reduced mortality during the first 6 months of ART. This additional intervention may have the potential to improve the lives of patients on ART, because CTX is readily available and relatively inexpensive and can, in principle, be easily introduced into ART delivery programs.
- SourceAvailable from: Charlie Michael van der Horst
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- "Cotrimoxazole prophylaxis has been shown to reduce morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected adults and children     . The World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines issued in 2006 recommend daily cotrimoxazole prophylactic treatment (CPT) for HIV-infected adults and HIV-infected pregnant women with CD4 cell counts of less than 350 cells/ í µí¼L or WHO clinical stage III or IV . "
ABSTRACT: Background. Limited data exist on cotrimoxazole prophylactic treatment (CPT) in pregnant women, including protection against malaria versus standard intermittent preventive therapy with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp). Methods. Using observational data we examined the effect of CPT in HIV-infected pregnant women on malaria during pregnancy, low birth weight and preterm birth using proportional hazards, logistic, and log binomial regression, respectively. We used linear regression to assess effect of CPT on CD4 count. Results. Data from 468 CPT-exposed and 768 CPT-unexposed women were analyzed. CPT was associated with protection against malaria versus IPTp (hazard ratio: 0.35, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.20, 0.60). After adjustment for time period this effect was not statistically significant (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.28, 1.52). Among women receiving and not receiving CPT, rates of low birth weight (7.1% versus 7.6%) and preterm birth (23.5% versus 23.6%) were similar. CPT was associated with lower CD4 counts 24 weeks postpartum in women receiving (-77.6 cells/ μ L, 95% CI: -125.2, -30.1) and not receiving antiretrovirals (-33.7 cells/ μ L, 95% CI: -58.6, -8.8). Conclusions. Compared to IPTp, CPT provided comparable protection against malaria in HIV-infected pregnant women and against preterm birth or low birth weight. Possible implications of CPT-associated lower CD4 postpartum warrant further examination.Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology 12/2013; 2013:340702. DOI:10.1155/2013/340702
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- "Risk factors for early deaths include low baseline CD4 lymphocyte count, initiation of therapy when already in WHO clinical stage 4, low body mass index and anaemia, with the main responsible diseases being tuberculosis (both diagnosed and undiagnosed), bacterial sepsis, cryptococcal meningitis and Kaposi's sarcoma. Useful interventions to reduce this early mortality that should be implemented either before or simultaneously with initiation of ART include cotrimoxazole preventive therapy (Lowrance et al. 2007), active screening for tuberculosis among high-risk patients such as those with unexplained weight loss and ⁄ or unexplained chronic fever, and screening for those at high risk of cryptococcal meningitis with cryptococcal antigen testing and targeted pre-emptive treatment for those with positive results (Jarvis et al. 2009). "
ABSTRACT: The scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been one of the success stories of sub-Saharan Africa, where coverage has increased from about 2% in 2003 to more than 40% 5 years later. However, tempering this success is a growing concern about patient retention (the proportion of patients who are alive and remaining on ART in the health system). Based on the personal experience of the authors, 10 key interventions are presented and discussed that might help to improve patient retention. These are (1) the need for simple and standardized monitoring systems to track what is happening, (2) reliable ascertainment of true outcomes of patients lost to follow-up, (3) implementation of measures to reduce early mortality in patients both before and during ART, (4) ensuring uninterrupted drug supplies, (5) consideration of simple, non-toxic ART regimens, (6) decentralization of ART care to health centres and the community, (7) a reduction in indirect costs for patients particularly in relation to transport to and from clinics, (8) strengthening links within and between health services and the community, (9) the use of ART clinics to deliver other beneficial patient or family-orientated packages of care such as insecticide-treated bed nets, and (10) innovative (thinking 'out of the box') interventions. High levels of retention on ART are vital for individual patients, for credibility of programmes and for on-going resource and financial support.Tropical Medicine & International Health 06/2010; 15 Suppl 1(s1):70-5. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3156.2010.02506.x · 2.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Two-thirds of the world's HIV-infected people live in sub-Saharan Africa, and more than 1.5 million of them die annually. As access to antiretroviral treatment has expanded within the region; early pessimism concerning the delivery of antiretroviral treatment using a large-scale public health approach has, at least in the short term, proved to be broadly unfounded. Immunological and virological responses to ART are similar to responses in patients treated in high-income countries. Despite this, however, early mortality rates in sub-Saharan Africa are very high; between 8 and 26% of patients die in the first year of antiretroviral treatment, with most deaths occurring in the first few months. Patients typically access antiretroviral treatment with advanced symptomatic disease, and mortality is strongly associated with baseline CD4 cell count less than 50 cells/mul and WHO stage 4 disease (AIDS). Although data are limited, leading causes of death appear to be tuberculosis, acute sepsis, cryptococcal meningitis, malignancy and wasting syndrome. Mortality rates are likely to depend not only on the care delivered by antiretroviral treatment programmes, but more fundamentally on how advanced disease is at programme enrollment and the quality of preceding healthcare. In addition to improving delivery of antiretroviral treatment and providing it free of charge to the patient, strategies to reduce mortality must include earlier diagnosis of HIV infection, strengthening of longitudinal HIV care and timely initiation of antiretroviral treatment. Health systems delays in antiretroviral treatment initiation must be minimized, especially in patients who present with advanced immunodeficiency.AIDS (London, England) 11/2008; 22(15):1897-908. DOI:10.1097/QAD.0b013e32830007cd · 6.56 Impact Factor