Motion analysis of a child with Niemann-Pick disease type C treated with miglustat.
ABSTRACT Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder for which there is no effective treatment other than supportive therapy. Recently, the oral medication miglustat has been offered as a possible therapy aimed at reducing pathological substrate accumulation. This article describes the use of computerized three-dimensional motion analysis to evaluate a 3-year-old child with NPC treated with miglustat for 12 months. Motion analysis provided quantitative data on the patient's gait. However, dementia and motor dysfunction progressed despite the treatment, and the patient lost the ability to walk between 9 and 12 months of the study. Motion analysis should be considered among the tools for measuring functional outcomes in future therapeutical trials of patients with neurodegenerative diseases. It is not possible to draw conclusions about miglustat therapy in NPC from a single patient experience.
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ABSTRACT: Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is an autosomal recessive neurovisceral lysosomal lipid storage disorder that leads to variable symptoms that include cognitive decline, ataxia, dystonia, cataplexy, vertical supranuclear gaze palsy, and seizures. Currently, there is no specific treatment for NPC other than palliative care. Substrate reduction therapy represents a potential strategy for treating this debilitating neurodegenerative disorder. Miglustat (Zavesca) is a reversible inhibitor of the enzyme glucosylceramide synthase, which catalyses the first step in the biosynthesis of most glycosphingolipids. Miglustat has pharmacokinetic properties that allow it to cross the blood-brain barrier, thus making it a potential therapeutic agent for treating neurological symptoms in NPC patients. We present here a case report of a Brazilian child treated with miglustat. Before treatment, the patient presented with difficulties walking and swallowing, slurred speech, moderate cognitive impairments, ataxia, ptosis, and vertical supranuclear ophthalmoplegia. On a disability scale, the patient obtained a score of 15 before treatment and 8 after treatment. Following 12 months of treatment, the patient remained stable with improvements in speech, ptosis, ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, hypotonia and seizures. The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) was used to assess psychopathological, behavioural and social problems before and after treatment. The CBCL showed that indices for depression, affective and attention problems were all in the normal range following treatment. Thus, for this individual miglustat was an effective, well-tolerated and efficacious medication for treatment of NPC symptoms. Follow-up maintenance studies are vital to establish whether both the efficacy and safety of miglustat persist with time.Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease 11/2008; 31 Suppl 2:S357-61. · 4.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Niemann-Pick disease type C (NP-C) is a rare inherited neurovisceral disease caused by mutations in either the NPC1 (in 95% of cases) or the NPC2 gene (in around 5% of cases), which lead to impaired intracellular lipid trafficking and accumulation of cholesterol and glycosphingolipids in the brain and other tissues. Characteristic neurological manifestations of NP-C include saccadic eye movement (SEM) abnormalities or vertical supranuclear gaze palsy (VSGP), cerebellar signs (ataxia, dystonia/dysmetria, dysarthria and dysphagia) and gelastic cataplexy. Epileptic seizures are also common in affected patients. Typically, neurological disease onset occurs during childhood, although an increasing number of cases are being detected and diagnosed during adulthood based on late-onset neurological signs and psychiatric manifestations. Categorization of patients according to age at onset of neurological manifestations (i.e. early-infantile, late-infantile, juvenile and adolescent/adult-onset) can be useful for the evaluation of disease course and treatment responses. The first international guidelines for the clinical management of NP-C in children and adults were published in 2009. Since that time a significant amount of data regarding the epidemiology, detection/diagnosis, and treatment of NP-C has been published. Here, we report points of consensus among experts in the diagnosis and treatment of NP-C based on a follow-up meeting in Paris, France in September 2011. This article serves as an update to the original guidelines providing, among other things, further information on detection/diagnostic methods, potential new methods of monitoring disease progression, and therapy. Treatment goals and the application of disease-specific therapy with miglustat are also re-evaluated.Molecular Genetics and Metabolism 05/2012; 106(3):330-44. · 2.83 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Miglustat (Zavesca(®), Brazaves(®)), a small iminosugar molecule that reversibly inhibits glycosphingolipid synthesis, is the only disease-specific drug approved for the treatment of progressive neurological manifestations of Niemann-Pick disease type C (NP-C) in adult and paediatric patients. NP-C is a rare, autosomal-recessive lipid storage disorder characterized by impaired intracellular lipid trafficking and progressive neurological symptoms leading to premature death. In a randomized clinical trial, long-term extension studies and a retrospective observational cohort study, treatment with oral miglustat stabilized key neurological manifestations of NP-C (including horizontal saccadic eye movement peak velocity, ambulation, manipulation, language and swallowing) in paediatric and adult patients with the disease. The therapeutic effects of miglustat in stabilizing or slowing disease progression have been confirmed in other reports in the clinical experience setting. The primary tolerability issues associated with miglustat are mild to moderate gastrointestinal effects (e.g. diarrhoea, flatulence and abdominal pain/discomfort) and weight loss, which usually occur during initial therapy and are generally manageable. In the absence of a cure, miglustat is a valuable agent to reduce the progression of clinically relevant neurological symptoms in paediatric and adult patients with NP-C, which is considered a significant achievement in the treatment of this disease.Drugs 12/2013; · 4.13 Impact Factor