Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder for which there is no effective treatment other than supportive therapy. Recently, the oral medication miglustat has been offered as a possible therapy aimed at reducing pathological substrate accumulation. This article describes the use of computerized three-dimensional motion analysis to evaluate a 3-year-old child with NPC treated with miglustat for 12 months. Motion analysis provided quantitative data on the patient's gait. However, dementia and motor dysfunction progressed despite the treatment, and the patient lost the ability to walk between 9 and 12 months of the study. Motion analysis should be considered among the tools for measuring functional outcomes in future therapeutical trials of patients with neurodegenerative diseases. It is not possible to draw conclusions about miglustat therapy in NPC from a single patient experience.
"Data on the therapeutic effects of miglustat in paediatric patients in clinical practice settings are relatively limited [22-27], and evidence from patients with the early-infantile form are particularly scarce. There is therefore an ongoing need for further clinical experience data on the use of miglustat in children, particularly with regard to disease-specific disability assessments. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Niemann-Pick disease type C (NP-C) is a rare neurovisceral lysosomal lipid storage disease characterized by progressive neurological deterioration. Published data on the use of miglustat in paediatric patients in clinical practice settings are limited. We report findings from a prospective open-label study in the French paediatric NP-C cohort.
Data on all paediatric NP-C patients treated with miglustat in France between October 2006 and December 2010 were compiled. All patients had a confirmed diagnosis of NP-C, and received miglustat therapy according to manufacturer's recommendations. Pre-treatment and follow-up assessments were conducted according to a standardized protocol.
Twenty children were enrolled; 19 had NPC1 gene mutations and 1 had NPC2 gene mutations. The median age at diagnosis was 1.5 years, and the median age at miglustat initiation was 6.0 years. Eight NPC1 patients had the early-infantile, eight had the late-infantile, and three had the juvenile-onset forms of NP-C. A history of hepatosplenomegaly and/or other cholestatic symptoms was recorded in all 8 early-infantile onset patients, 3/8 late-infantile patients, and 1/3 juvenile onset patients. Brain imaging indicated white matter abnormalities in most patients. The median (range) duration of miglustat therapy was 1.3 (0.6-2.3) years in early-infantile, 1.0 (0.8-5.0) year in late-infantile, and 1.0 (0.6-2.5) year in juvenile onset patients. NP-C disability scale scores indicated either stabilization or improvement of neurological manifestations in 1/8, 6/8, and 1/3 NPC1 patients in these subgroups, respectively. There were no correlations between brain imaging findings and disease course. Mild-to-moderate gastrointestinal disturbances were frequent during the first 3 months of miglustat therapy, but were easily managed with dietary modifications and/or anti-propulsive medication.
Miglustat can improve or stabilize neurological manifestations in paediatric patients with the late-infantile and juvenile-onset forms of NP-C. Among early-infantile onset patients, a shorter delay between neurological disease onset and miglustat initiation was associated with an initial better therapeutic outcome in one patient, but miglustat did not seem to modify overall disease course in this subgroup. More experience is required with long-term miglustat therapy in early-infantile onset patients treated from the very beginning of neurological manifestations.
"In summary, the patients in our series who showed deterioration during miglustat therapy were those who were at a more advanced stage of the disease. This seems in agreement with a previous case of a male patient aged 3 years, where little therapeutic response was reported after 12 months' treatment with miglustat . In general, patients with infantile NP-C generally exhibit greater symptom severity and more rapid disease progression than those with juvenile-onset disease , and therefore seem less likely to show appreciable therapeutic responses to miglustat therapy . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Niemann-Pick disease type C (NP-C) is an inherited neurovisceral lysosomal lipid storage disease characterized by progressive neurological deterioration. Different clinical forms have been defined based on patient age at onset: perinatal, early-infantile (EI), late-infantile (Li), juvenile and adult. We evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of miglustat in 16 symptomatic NP-C patients, with comparative reference to one neurologically asymptomatic, untreated patient. All patients were categorized according to age at neurological disease onset, and were assessed using a standardized clinical assessment protocol: disability and cognitive function scales, positron emission tomography (PET), and biochemical markers. PET and disability scale evaluations indicated that cerebral hypometabolism and neurological symptoms were stabilized during treatment in juvenile-onset NP-C patients. EI and Li NP-C patients, who had higher disease severity at baseline (treatment start), showed increased disability scores and progressive cerebral hypometabolism during follow up. Similarly, while cognitive scale scores remained relatively stable in patients with juvenile NP-C, cognition deteriorated in EI and Li patients. Plasma chitotriosidase (ChT) activity was lower in the juvenile NP-C subgroup than in EI and Li patients, and generally increased in patients who discontinued treatment. Plasma CCL18/PARC and ChT activities indicated greater macrophagic activity in EI and Li patients versus juveniles. Miglustat was generally well tolerated; frequent adverse events included diarrhea and flatulence, which were managed effectively by dietary modification and loperamide. Overall, miglustat appeared to stabilize neurological status in juvenile-onset NP-C patients, but therapeutic benefits appeared smaller among younger patients who were at a more advanced stage of disease at baseline.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is an autosomal recessive neurovisceral lysosomal lipid storage disorder that leads to variable symptoms that include cognitive decline, ataxia, dystonia, cataplexy, vertical supranuclear gaze palsy, and seizures. Currently, there is no specific treatment for NPC other than palliative care. Substrate reduction therapy represents a potential strategy for treating this debilitating neurodegenerative disorder. Miglustat (Zavesca) is a reversible inhibitor of the enzyme glucosylceramide synthase, which catalyses the first step in the biosynthesis of most glycosphingolipids. Miglustat has pharmacokinetic properties that allow it to cross the blood-brain barrier, thus making it a potential therapeutic agent for treating neurological symptoms in NPC patients. We present here a case report of a Brazilian child treated with miglustat. Before treatment, the patient presented with difficulties walking and swallowing, slurred speech, moderate cognitive impairments, ataxia, ptosis, and vertical supranuclear ophthalmoplegia. On a disability scale, the patient obtained a score of 15 before treatment and 8 after treatment. Following 12 months of treatment, the patient remained stable with improvements in speech, ptosis, ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, hypotonia and seizures. The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) was used to assess psychopathological, behavioural and social problems before and after treatment. The CBCL showed that indices for depression, affective and attention problems were all in the normal range following treatment. Thus, for this individual miglustat was an effective, well-tolerated and efficacious medication for treatment of NPC symptoms. Follow-up maintenance studies are vital to establish whether both the efficacy and safety of miglustat persist with time.
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