Motion analysis of a child with Niemann-Pick disease type C treated with miglustat.
ABSTRACT Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder for which there is no effective treatment other than supportive therapy. Recently, the oral medication miglustat has been offered as a possible therapy aimed at reducing pathological substrate accumulation. This article describes the use of computerized three-dimensional motion analysis to evaluate a 3-year-old child with NPC treated with miglustat for 12 months. Motion analysis provided quantitative data on the patient's gait. However, dementia and motor dysfunction progressed despite the treatment, and the patient lost the ability to walk between 9 and 12 months of the study. Motion analysis should be considered among the tools for measuring functional outcomes in future therapeutical trials of patients with neurodegenerative diseases. It is not possible to draw conclusions about miglustat therapy in NPC from a single patient experience.
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ABSTRACT: In several lysosomal storage disorders, including Niemann-Pick disease Type C (NP-C), sphingolipids, including glycosphingolipids, particularly gangliosides, are the predominant storage materials in the brain, raising the possibility that accumulation of these lipids may be involved in the NP-C neurodegenerative process. However, correlation of these accumulations and NP-C neuropathology has not been fully characterized. Here we derived NP-C mice with complete and partial deletion of the Siat9 (encoding GM3 synthase) gene in order to investigate the role of ganglioside in NP-C pathogenesis. According to our results, NPC mice with homozygotic deletion of GM3 synthase exhibited an enhanced neuropathological phenotype and died significantly earlier than NP-C mice. Notably, in contrast to complete depletion, NP-C mice with partial deletion of the GM3 synthase gene showed ameliorated NP-C neuropathology, including motor disability, demyelination, and abnormal accumulation of cholesterol and sphingolipids. These findings indicate the crucial role of GM3 synthesis in the NP-C phenotype and progression of CNS pathologic abnormality, suggesting that well-controlled inhibition of GM3 synthesis could be used as a therapeutic strategy.Molecules and Cells 02/2014; 37(2):161-71. · 2.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Niemann-Pick disease type C (NP-C) is a rare neurovisceral lysosomal lipid storage disease characterized by progressive neurological deterioration. Published data on the use of miglustat in paediatric patients in clinical practice settings are limited. We report findings from a prospective open-label study in the French paediatric NP-C cohort. Data on all paediatric NP-C patients treated with miglustat in France between October 2006 and December 2010 were compiled. All patients had a confirmed diagnosis of NP-C, and received miglustat therapy according to manufacturer's recommendations. Pre-treatment and follow-up assessments were conducted according to a standardized protocol. Twenty children were enrolled; 19 had NPC1 gene mutations and 1 had NPC2 gene mutations. The median age at diagnosis was 1.5 years, and the median age at miglustat initiation was 6.0 years. Eight NPC1 patients had the early-infantile, eight had the late-infantile, and three had the juvenile-onset forms of NP-C. A history of hepatosplenomegaly and/or other cholestatic symptoms was recorded in all 8 early-infantile onset patients, 3/8 late-infantile patients, and 1/3 juvenile onset patients. Brain imaging indicated white matter abnormalities in most patients. The median (range) duration of miglustat therapy was 1.3 (0.6-2.3) years in early-infantile, 1.0 (0.8-5.0) year in late-infantile, and 1.0 (0.6-2.5) year in juvenile onset patients. NP-C disability scale scores indicated either stabilization or improvement of neurological manifestations in 1/8, 6/8, and 1/3 NPC1 patients in these subgroups, respectively. There were no correlations between brain imaging findings and disease course. Mild-to-moderate gastrointestinal disturbances were frequent during the first 3 months of miglustat therapy, but were easily managed with dietary modifications and/or anti-propulsive medication. Miglustat can improve or stabilize neurological manifestations in paediatric patients with the late-infantile and juvenile-onset forms of NP-C. Among early-infantile onset patients, a shorter delay between neurological disease onset and miglustat initiation was associated with an initial better therapeutic outcome in one patient, but miglustat did not seem to modify overall disease course in this subgroup. More experience is required with long-term miglustat therapy in early-infantile onset patients treated from the very beginning of neurological manifestations.Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 06/2012; 7:36. · 4.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Miglustat (Zavesca(®), Brazaves(®)), a small iminosugar molecule that reversibly inhibits glycosphingolipid synthesis, is the only disease-specific drug approved for the treatment of progressive neurological manifestations of Niemann-Pick disease type C (NP-C) in adult and paediatric patients. NP-C is a rare, autosomal-recessive lipid storage disorder characterized by impaired intracellular lipid trafficking and progressive neurological symptoms leading to premature death. In a randomized clinical trial, long-term extension studies and a retrospective observational cohort study, treatment with oral miglustat stabilized key neurological manifestations of NP-C (including horizontal saccadic eye movement peak velocity, ambulation, manipulation, language and swallowing) in paediatric and adult patients with the disease. The therapeutic effects of miglustat in stabilizing or slowing disease progression have been confirmed in other reports in the clinical experience setting. The primary tolerability issues associated with miglustat are mild to moderate gastrointestinal effects (e.g. diarrhoea, flatulence and abdominal pain/discomfort) and weight loss, which usually occur during initial therapy and are generally manageable. In the absence of a cure, miglustat is a valuable agent to reduce the progression of clinically relevant neurological symptoms in paediatric and adult patients with NP-C, which is considered a significant achievement in the treatment of this disease.Drugs 12/2013; · 4.13 Impact Factor