Nitric oxide evolution and perception. J Exp Bot

Centre for Research in Plant Science, Faculty of Applied Sciences, University of the West of England, Bristol, Bristol BS16 1Q, UK.
Journal of Experimental Botany (Impact Factor: 5.79). 02/2008; 59(1):25-35. DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erm218
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Various experimental data indicate signalling roles for nitric oxide (NO) in processes such as xylogenesis, programmed cell death, pathogen defence, flowering, stomatal closure, and gravitropism. However, it still remains unclear how NO is synthesized. Nitric oxide synthase-like activity has been measured in various plant extracts, NO can be generated from nitrite via nitrate reductase and other mechanisms of NO generation are also likely to exist. NO removal mechanisms, for example, by reaction with haemoglobins, have also been identified. NO is a gas emitted by plants, with the rate of evolution increasing under conditions such as pathogen challenge or hypoxia. However, exactly how NO evolution relates to its bioactivity in planta remains to be established. NO has both aqueous and lipid solubility, but is relatively reactive and easily oxidized to other nitrogen oxides. It reacts with superoxide to form peroxynitrite, with other cellular components such as transition metals and haem-containing proteins and with thiol groups to form S-nitrosothiols. Thus, diffusion of NO within the plant may be relatively restricted and there might exist 'NO hot-spots' depending on the sites of NO generation and the local biochemical micro-environment. Alternatively, it is possible that NO is transported as chemical precursors such as nitrite or as nitrosothiols that might function as NO reservoirs. Cellular perception of NO may occur through its reaction with biologically active molecules that could function as 'NO-sensors'. These might include either haem-containing proteins such as guanylyl cyclase which generates the second messenger cGMP or other proteins containing exposed reactive thiol groups. Protein S-nitrosylation alters protein conformation, is reversible and thus, is likely to be of biological significance.

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Available from: John T Hancock, Mar 16, 2015
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    • "Nitric oxide (NO) is a key player in redox signaling pathways in plant cell revealing concentration-dependent effects—from the mild regulation of morphogenesis to the triggering of the programmed cell death (PCD) events (Neill et al., 2008; Baudouin, 2011). Dinitrogen trioxide (N 2 O 3 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), and highly reactive molecule of nitrogen monoxide (NO) that exist in cell in three interchangeable forms [nitrosonium cation (NO + ), nitroxyl anion (NO − ) and free radical (NO • )] along with peroxynitrite (ONOO − ) and S-nitrosothiols (GSNOs) are named reactive nitrogen species (RNS) (Neill et al., 2008). RNS are able to modify numerous proteins affecting their structure, protein–protein interaction and/or function ( " loss " / " gain " and the enhanced protein turnover) (Lindermayr et al., 2005; Abello et al., 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: During last years, selective tyrosine nitration of plant proteins gains importance as well-recognized pathway of direct nitric oxide (NO) signal transduction. Plant microtubules are one of the intracellular signaling targets for NO, however, the molecular mechanisms of NO signal transduction with the involvement of cytoskeletal proteins remain to be elucidated. Since biochemical evidence of plant α-tubulin tyrosine nitration has been obtained recently, potential role of this posttranslational modification in regulation of microtubules organization in plant cell is estimated in current paper. It was shown that 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NO2-Tyr) induced partially reversible Arabidopsis primary root growth inhibition, alterations of root hairs morphology and organization of microtubules in root cells. It was also revealed that 3-NO2-Tyr intensively decorates such highly dynamic microtubular arrays as preprophase bands, mitotic spindles and phragmoplasts of Nicotiana tabacum Bright Yellow-2 (BY-2) cells under physiological conditions. Moreover, 3D models of the mitotic kinesin-8 complexes with the tail of detyrosinated, tyrosinated and tyrosine nitrated α-tubulin (on C-terminal Tyr 450 residue) from Arabidopsis were reconstructed in silico to investigate the potential influence of tubulin nitrotyrosination on the molecular dynamics of α-tubulin and kinesin-8 interaction. Generally, presented data suggest that plant α-tubulin tyrosine nitration can be considered as its common posttranslational modification, the direct mechanism of NO signal transduction with the participation of microtubules under physiological conditions and one of the hallmarks of the increased microtubule dynamics.
    Frontiers in Plant Science 12/2013; 4:530. DOI:10.3389/fpls.2013.00530 · 3.95 Impact Factor
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    • "Two NR genes have been identified in rice roots, which are designated as OsNia1 and OsNia2, respectively (Ali et al., 2007; Cao et al., 2008). The activity of NOS had been detected in plants, but NOS gene has not been identified from plants (Neill et al., 2008; Gas et al., 2009). There are other NO producing pathways including aerobic NO formation based on hydroxylamines or polyamines and anoxic NO formation based on deoxygenated hemeproteins, but the exact molecular mechanisms of these two NO producing pathways are still highly speculative (Fröhlich and Durner, 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: Irrigation with cyanobacterial-blooming water containing microcystin-LR (MC-LR) poses threat to the growth of agricultural plants. Large amounts of rice (Oryza sativa) field in the middle part of China has been irrigating with cyanobacterial-blooming water. Nevertheless, the mechanism of MC-LR-induced phytotoxicity in the root of monocot rice remains unclear. In the present study, we demonstrate that MC-LR stress significantly inhibits the growth of rice root by impacting the morphogenesis rice crown root. MC-LR treatment results in the decrease in IAA (indole-3-acetic acid) concentration as well as the expression of CRL1 and WOX11 in rice roots. The application of NAA (1-naphthylacetic acid), an IAA homologue, is able to attenuate the inhibitory effect of MC-LR on rice root development. MC-LR treatment significantly inhibits OsNia1-dependent NO generation in rice roots. The application of NO donor SNP (sodium nitroprusside) is able to partially reverse the inhibitory effects of MC-LR on the growth of rice root and the expression of CRL1 and WOX11 by enhancing endogenous NO level in rice roots. The application of NO scavenger cPTIO [2-(4-carboxy-2-phenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylinidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide] eliminates the effects of SNP. Treatment with NAA stimulates the generation of endogenous NO in MC-LR-treated rice roots. Treatment with NO scavenger cPTIO abolishes the ameliorated effect of NAA on MC-LR-induced growth inhibition of rice root. Treatment with SNP enhanced IAA concentration in MC-LR-treated rice roots. Altogether, our data suggest that NO acts both downstream and upstream of auxin in regulating rice root morphogenesis under MC-LR stress.
    Chemosphere 05/2013; 93(2). DOI:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.04.079 · 3.50 Impact Factor
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    • "Both polyamines and NO function as stress signals in plant, mediating plant development and a range of biotic and abiotic stresses (Zhao et al., 2007; Neill et al., 2008; Lozano- Juste and Leόn, 2010; Wang et al., 2011b). NO may be a link between polyamine-mediated stress responses and other stress mediators, and multiple abiotic stresses may use NO as a mediator where polyamines are also involved (Tun et al., 2006; Neill et al., 2008). Recently, the present study group found that increasing NO content in Arabidopsis by expressing rat neuronal NO synthase conferred enhanced multiple stress tolerances (Shi et al., 2012a,b). "
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    ABSTRACT: Arginine is an important medium for the transport and storage of nitrogen, and arginase (also known as arginine amidohydrolase, ARGAH) is responsible for catalyse of arginine into ornithine and urea in plants. In this study, the impact of AtARGAHs on abiotic stress response was investigated by manipulating AtARGAHs expression. In the knockout mutants of AtARGAHs, enhanced tolerances were observed to multiple abiotic stresses including water deficit, salt, and freezing stresses, while AtARGAH1- and AtARGAH2-overexpressing lines exhibited reduced abiotic stress tolerances compared to the wild type. Consistently, the enhanced tolerances were confirmed by the changes of physiological parameters including electrolyte leakage, water loss rate, stomatal aperture, and survival rate. Interestingly, the direct downstream products of arginine catabolism including polyamines and nitric oxide (NO) concentrations significantly increased in the AtARGAHs-knockout lines, but decreased in overexpressing lines under control conditions. Additionally, the AtARGAHs-overexpressing and -knockout lines displayed significantly reduced relative arginine (% of total free amino acids) relative to the wild type. Similarly, reactive oxygen species accumulation was remarkably regulated by AtARGAHs under abiotic stress conditions, as shown from hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), superoxide radical () concentrations, and antioxidant enzyme activities. Taken together, this is the first report, as far as is known, to provide evidence that AtARGAHs negatively regulate many abiotic stress tolerances, at least partially, attribute to their roles in modulating arginine metabolism and reactive oxygen species accumulation. Biotechnological strategy based on manipulation of AtARGAHs expression will be valuable for future crop breeding.
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