Aripiprazole for the treatment of psychoses in institutionalized patients with Alzheimer dementia: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled assessment of three fixed doses.
ABSTRACT To assess the efficacy and safety of aripiprazole for psychosis associated with Alzheimer dementia (AD).
In this double-blind, multicenter study, 487 institutionalized patients with psychosis associated with AD were randomized to placebo or aripiprazole, 2, 5 or 10 mg/day. Primary efficacy assessment was the mean change from baseline to week 10 on the Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Nursing Home (NPI-NH) version Psychosis Subscale score. Secondary measures included NPI-NH Total, Clinical Global Impression-Severity of Illness (CGI-S), Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) Core and Total, and the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI) scores.
Aripiprazole 10 mg/day showed significantly greater improvements (mean change [2 x SD]) than placebo on the NPI-NH Psychosis Subscale (-6.87 [8.6] versus -5.13 [10.0]; F = 6.29, df = 1, 422, p = 0.013 by analysis of covariance [ANCOVA]); CGI-S (-0.72 [1.8] versus -0.46 [1.6]; F = 4.68, df = 1, 419, p = 0.031 [ANCOVA]); BPRS Total (-7.12 [18.4] versus -4.17 [21.6]; F = 4.72, df = 1, 399, p = 0.030 [ANCOVA]); BPRS Core (-3.07 [6.9] versus -1.74 [7.8]; F = 7.30, df = 1, 407, p = 0.007 [ANCOVA]); CMAI (-10.96 [22.6] versus -6.64 [28.6]; F = 5.23, df = 1, 410, p = 0.023 [ANCOVA]), and NPI-NH Psychosis response rate (65 versus 50%; chi(2) = 5.52, df = 1, p = 0.019 [CMH]). Aripiprazole 5 mg/day showed significant improvements versus placebo on BPRS and CMAI scores. Aripiprazole 2 mg/day was not efficacious. Cerebrovascular adverse events were reported: aripiprazole 2 mg/day, N = 1; 5 mg/day, N = 2; 10 mg/day, N = 4; placebo, N = 0. No deaths in any group (aripiprazole 2 mg/day, 3%; 5 mg/day, 2%; 10 mg/day, 7%; placebo, 3%) were considered to be treatment-related.
Aripiprazole 10 mg/day was efficacious and safe for psychosis associated with AD, significantly improving psychotic symptoms, agitation, and clinical global impression. However, clinicians should be aware of the safety considerations of atypical antipsychotic uses in this population.
- International Psychogeriatrics 04/2014; · 1.89 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Psychotic symptoms emerging in the context of neurodegeneration as a consequence of Alzheimer's disease was recognized and documented by Alois Alzheimer himself in his description of the first reported case of the disease. Over a quarter of a century ago, in the context of attempting to develop prognostic markers of disease progression, psychosis was identified as an independent predictor of a more-rapid cognitive decline. This finding has been subsequently well replicated, rendering psychotic symptoms an important area of exploration in clinical history taking - above and beyond treatment necessity - as their presence has prognostic significance. Further, there is now a rapidly accreting body of research that suggests that psychosis in Alzheimer's disease (AD+P) is a heritable disease subtype that enjoys neuropathological specificity and localization. There is now hope that the elucidation of the neurobiology of the syndrome will pave the way to translational research eventuating in new treatments. To date, however, the primary treatments employed in alleviating the suffering caused by AD+P are the atypical antipsychotics. These agents are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of schizophrenia, but they have only marginal efficacy in treating AD+P and are associated with troubling levels of morbidity and mortality. For clinical approaches to AD+P to be optimized, this syndrome must be disentangled from other primary psychotic disorders, and recent scientific advances must be translated into disease-specific therapeutic interventions. Here we provide a review of atypical antipsychotic efficacy in AD+P, followed by an overview of critical neurobiological observations that point towards a frontal, tau-mediated model of disease, and we suggest a new preclinical animal model for future translational research.Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 01/2014; 10:2253-2262. · 2.15 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background: The application of atypical antipsychotics (SGAs) for treatment of psychiatric and behavioral symptoms of dementia is controversial since their efficacy might be offset by their adverse events (AEs). Objective: To assess the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of SGAs for treatment of psychological and behavioral symptoms of dementia. Methods: Two researchers searched MEDLINE, PsychINFO, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials independently for double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized controlled trials (DB-PC-RCTs) as of June 2013, written in English. Efficacy was measured using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI), Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), Clinical Global Impression of Change (CGI-C), and (or) Clinical Global Impression of Severity (CGI-S). Safety and tolerability were measured by frequencies of drop-outs, adverse events (AEs), and death. In total, 19 treatment comparisons drawn from 16 DB-PC-RCTs were included, and 3,343 patients randomized to the antipsychotic group and 1,707 to the placebo group were assessed. Results: This meta-analysis demonstrated a significant efficacy of atypical antipsychotics on BPRS (MD = -1.58, 95% CI = -2.52 - -0.65), CMAI (-1.84, -3.01 - -0.61), NPI (-2.81, -4.35 - -1.28), CGI-C (-0.32, -0.44 - -0.20), and CGI-S (-0.19, -0.30 - -0.09), compared to placebo (p < 0.01 for all). Patients receiving atypical antipsychotics showed no difference in risk for discontinuation (p > 0.05), significantly higher risks (p < 0.05 for all) for somnolence (OR = 2.95), extrapyramidal symptoms (1.74), cerebrovascular AEs (2.50), urinary tract infection (1.35), edema (1.80), gait abnormality (3.35), and death (1.52), and a lower risk for agitation (OR = 0.80, p = 0.03). Conclusions: The higher risks for AEs and mortality may offset the efficacy of atypical antipsychotics for treatment of dementia. Efficacy, safety, and tolerability thus should be carefully considered against clinical need.Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD 07/2014; · 3.61 Impact Factor