Acute physical exercise reverses S-nitrosation of the insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate 1 and protein kinase B/Akt in diet-induced obese Wistar rats.
ABSTRACT Early evidence demonstrates that exogenous nitric oxide (NO) and the NO produced by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) can induce insulin resistance. Here, we investigated whether this insulin resistance, mediated by S-nitrosation of proteins involved in early steps of the insulin signal transduction pathway, could be reversed by acute physical exercise. Rats on a high-fat diet were subjected to swimming for two 3 h-long bouts, separated by a 45 min rest period. Two or 16 h after the exercise protocol the rats were killed and proteins from the insulin signalling pathway were analysed by immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting. We demonstrated that a high-fat diet led to an increase in the iNOS protein level and S-nitrosation of insulin receptor beta (IR beta), insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) and Akt. Interestingly, an acute bout of exercise reduced iNOS expression and S-nitrosation of proteins involved in the early steps of insulin action, and improved insulin sensitivity in diet-induced obesity rats. Furthermore, administration of GSNO (NO donor) prevents this improvement in insulin action and the use of an inhibitor of iNOS (L-N6-(1-iminoethyl)lysine; L-NIL) simulates the effects of exercise on insulin action, insulin signalling and S-nitrosation of IR beta, IRS1 and Akt. In summary, a single bout of exercise reverses insulin sensitivity in diet-induced obese rats by improving the insulin signalling pathway, in parallel with a decrease in iNOS expression and in the S-nitrosation of IR/IRS1/Akt. The decrease in iNOS protein expression in the muscle of diet-induced obese rats after an acute bout of exercise was accompanied by an increase in AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity. These results provide new insights into the mechanism by which exercise restores insulin sensitivity.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Eduardo R Ropelle, Jan 07, 2014
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ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular disease risk and all-cause mortality is largely predicted by physical fitness. Exercise stimulates vascular mitochondrial biogenesis via endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), sirtuins (SIRTs), and PPARγ co-activator 1 alpha (PGC-1α), a response absent in diabetes and hypertension. We hypothesized that an agent regulating eNOS in the context of diabetes could reconstitute exercise mediated signaling to mitochondrial biogenesis. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) stimulates eNOS and blood flow; we employed saxagliptin, an inhibitor of GLP-1 degradation, to test whether vascular mitochondrial adaptation to exercise in diabetes could be restored. Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, a non-obese, type 2 diabetes model, and Wistar controls were exposed to an 8-day exercise intervention with or without saxagliptin (10mg/kg/d). We evaluated the impact of exercise and saxagliptin on mitochondrial proteins and signaling pathways in aorta. Mitochondrial protein expression increased with exercise in the Wistar aorta, and decreased or remained unchanged in the GK animals. GK rats treated with saxagliptin plus exercise showed increased expression of mitochondrial complexes, cytochrome c, eNOS, nNOS, PGC-1α, and UCP3 proteins. Notably, a three week saxagliptin plus exercise intervention significantly increased running time in the GK rats. These data suggest that saxagliptin restores vascular mitochondrial adaptation to exercise in a diabetic rodent model and may augment the impact of exercise on the vasculature.Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 09/2014; DOI:10.1097/FJC.0000000000000170 · 2.11 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Exercise can increase skeletal muscle sensitivity to insulin, improve insulin resistance and regulate glucose homeostasis in rat models of type 2 diabetes. However, the potential mechanism remains poorly understood. In this study, we established a male Sprague-Dawley rat model of type 2 diabetes, with insulin resistance and β cell dysfunction, which was induced by a high-fat diet and low-dose streptozotocin to replicate the pathogenesis and metabolic characteristics of type 2 diabetes in humans. We also investigated the possible mechanism by which chronic and acute exercise improves metabolism, and the phosphorylation and expression of components of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and downstream components of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathways in the soleus. As a result, blood glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, and free fatty acid were significantly increased, whereas insulin level progressively declined in diabetic rats. Interestingly, chronic and acute exercise reduced blood glucose, increased phosphorylation and expression of AMPKα1/2 and the isoforms AMPKα1 and AMPKα2, and decreased phosphorylation and expression of AMPK substrate, acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC). Chronic exercise upregulated phosphorylation and expression of AMPK upstream kinase, LKB1. But acute exercise only increased LKB1 expression. In particular, exercise reversed the changes in protein kinase C (PKC)ζ/λ phosphorylation, and PKCζ phosphorylation and expression. Additionally, exercise also increased protein kinase B (PKB)/Akt1, Akt2 and GLUT4 expression, but AS160 protein expression was unchanged. Chronic exercise elevated Akt (Thr(308)) and (Ser(473)) and AS160 phosphorylation. Finally, we found that exercise increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1 (PGC1) mRNA expression in the soleus of diabetic rats. These results indicate that both chronic and acute exercise influence the phosphorylation and expression of components of the AMPK and downstream to PIK3 (aPKC, Akt), and improve GLUT4 trafficking in skeletal muscle. These data help explain the mechanism how exercise regulates glucose homeostasis in diabetic rats.PLoS ONE 12/2012; 7(12):e51709. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0051709 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of concurrent exercise in the degree of the insulin resistance in mice fed with a high-fat diet, and assess adiponectin receptors (ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2) and endosomal adaptor protein APPL1 in different tissues. METHODS: Twenty-four mice were randomized into four groups (n = 6): chow standard diet and sedentary (C); chow standard diet and simultaneous exercise training (C-T); fed on a high-fat diet and sedentary (DIO); and fed on a high-fat diet and simultaneous exercise training (DIO-T). Simultaneously to starting high-fat diet feeding, the mice were submitted to a swimming exercise training protocol (2 x 30 minutes, with 5 minutes of interval/day), five days per week, for twelve weeks (90 days). Animals were then euthanized 48 hours after the last exercise training session, and adipose, liver, and skeletal muscle tissue were extracted for an immunoblotting analysis. RESULTS: IR, IRs, and Akt phosphorylation decreased in the DIO group in the three analyzed tissues. In addition, the DIO group exhibited ADIPOR1 (skeletal muscle and adipose tissue), ADIPOR2 (liver), and APPL1 reduced when compared with the C group. However, it was reverted when exercise training was simultaneously performed. In parallel, ADIPOR1 and 2 and APPL1 protein levels significantly increase in exercised mice. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that exercise training performed concomitantly to a high-fat diet reduces the degree of insulin resistance and improves adipoR1-2/APPL1 protein levels in the hepatic, adipose, and skeletal muscle tissue.Lipids in Health and Disease 10/2012; 11(1):134. DOI:10.1186/1476-511X-11-134 · 2.31 Impact Factor