How size is controlled: from Hippos to Yorkies.

Nature Cell Biology (Impact Factor: 20.06). 12/2007; 9(11):1225-7. DOI: 10.1038/ncb1107-1225
Source: PubMed
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    Revista Espa de Cardiologia 06/2009; 62(6):708-709. DOI:10.1016/S0300-8932(09)71344-2 · 3.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: How multicellular organisms control their size is a fundamental question that fascinated generations of biologists. In the past 10 years, tremendous progress has been made toward our understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying size control. Original studies from Drosophila showed that in addition to extrinsic nutritional and hormonal cues, intrinsic mechanisms also play important roles in the control of organ size during development. Several novel signaling pathways such as insulin and Hippo-LATS signaling pathways have been identified that control organ size by regulating cell size and/or cell number through modulation of cell growth, cell division, and cell death. Later studies using mammalian cell and mouse models also demonstrated that the signaling pathways identified in flies are also conserved in mammals. Significantly, recent studies showed that dysregulation of size control plays important roles in the development of many human diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and hypertrophy.
    Cell Research 05/2011; 21(5):715-29. DOI:10.1038/cr.2011.63 · 11.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Invertebrate animals have been used as medicinals for 4,000 years and have served as models for research and teaching since the late 1800s. Interest in invertebrate models has increased over the past several decades as the research community has responded to public concerns about the use of vertebrate animals in research. As a result, invertebrates are being evaluated and recognized as models for many diseases and conditions. Their use has led to discoveries in almost every area of biology and medicine--from embryonic development to aging processes. Species range from terrestrial invertebrates such as nematodes and insects to freshwater and marine life including planarians, crustaceans, molluscs, and many others. The most often used models are the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and the minuscule nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Topics in this article are categorized by biologic system, process, or disease with discussion of associated invertebrate models. Sections on bioactive products discovered from invertebrates follow the models section, and the article concludes with uses of invertebrates in teaching. The models reviewed can serve as references for scientists, researchers, veterinarians, institutional animal care and use committees (IACUCs), and others interested in alternatives to vertebrate animals.
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