Fatty acids, antioxidants, and oxidative stress in pre-eclampsia.
ABSTRACT To investigate whether free radical-mediated membrane lipid peroxidation may be implicated in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia.
A prospective study using a sample of 55 healthy pregnant women and 60 pre-eclamptic women recruited at Bharati Medical Hospital, Pune, India. Maternal and cord samples were examined for (red blood cells and plasma) fatty acid profiles, antioxidants, and oxidative stress levels. Mean values were compared between case and control groups using the t test and Wilcoxon rank test.
Pre-eclamptic women showed reduced total omega-3 fatty acids (P<0.05), increased omega-6:omega-3 ratio (P<0.05), higher oxidative stress (P<0.05), and lower antioxidant (P<0.05) levels. Similar trends were also observed in cord samples.
Reduced antioxidants and increased oxidative stress leading to impaired essential polyunsaturated fatty acid levels may be a key factor in the development of pre-eclampsia.
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ABSTRACT: Our earlier studies of preeclampsia (PE) at delivery have demonstrated the alteration of one carbon cycle, reduced placental omega 3 fatty acids, altered circulating levels of angiogenic factors and differential placental gene-specific methylation patterns of angiogenic factors. This study was undertaken to examine changes in the levels of angiogenic factors and angiotensin II type 1 receptor autoantibodies (AT1-AAs) throughout gestation, from early pregnancy until delivery, in women with PE and to examine their association with cord angiogenic factors, blood pressure and infant weight. A total of 81 pregnant women (46 normotensive and 35 with PE) were followed at three different time points during pregnancy: 16-20 weeks (T1), 26-30 weeks (T2) and at the time of delivery (T3). The plasma levels of angiogenic factors and AT1-AAs were determined in the maternal and cord plasma by commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Maternal plasma levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and placental growth factor (PlGF) were lower (P<0.05 for both), whereas soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1; P<0.05) and the sFlt-1/PlGF ratio (P<0.01) were higher in early pregnancy in the PE group. Maternal plasma AT1-AA levels were higher (P<0.05) at T2 in women with PE. Cord plasma VEGF and soluble kinase insert domain receptor (sKDR) levels were lower (P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively), whereas AT1-AA levels were higher (P<0.05) in the PE group. Maternal plasma VEGF levels in early pregnancy were positively associated with systolic blood pressure, whereas the sFlt-1/PlGF ratio at T2 was negatively associated with infant weight in the PE group. Low levels of proangiogenic factors (VEGF and PlGF) and high levels of AT1-AAs and antiangiogenic factors (sFlt-1 and sFlt-1/PlGF ratio) are present in the maternal circulation during early gestation in women with PE.Hypertension Research advance online publication, 10 April 2014; doi:10.1038/hr.2014.71.Hypertension Research 04/2014; · 2.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To examine the levels of breast milk neurotrophins 1.5, 3.5, and 6 months of lactation and long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) at day 3, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5 and 6 months of lactation in mothers with preeclampsia and compare them with normotensive women. Their associations with growth parameters in children are also examined. Women with preeclampsia (n = 101) and normotensive women (n=144) with singleton pregnancies were recruited for this study. Milk samples were collected and anthropometry was recorded at the first 6 months. The LCPUFA composition of milk samples was analyzed by using gas chromatography at all time points and neurotrophins were analyzed at 1.5, 3.5 and 6 months by Emax Immuno Assay System using Promega kits. Milk DHA levels were higher at day 3 (9.5%), and 1.5 (23%) and 3.5 (40%) months in mothers with preeclampsia as compared to controls. Milk nerve growth factor (NGF) levels were lower in preeclampsia group as compared to control group at 1.5 (20%) and 3.5 months (27.7%). Milk brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels were lower at 1.5 month (10.5%) in the preeclampsia group as compared to control group. The present study suggests that there is a differential regulation of DHA and neurotrophins in breast milk in preeclampsia and are associated with growth parameters of children. Future studies should explore the associations between milk LCPUFA, neurotrophins with neurodevelopment in children.International journal of developmental neuroscience: the official journal of the International Society for Developmental Neuroscience 12/2013; · 2.03 Impact Factor