Fatty acids, antioxidants, and oxidative stress in pre-eclampsia
ABSTRACT To investigate whether free radical-mediated membrane lipid peroxidation may be implicated in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia.
A prospective study using a sample of 55 healthy pregnant women and 60 pre-eclamptic women recruited at Bharati Medical Hospital, Pune, India. Maternal and cord samples were examined for (red blood cells and plasma) fatty acid profiles, antioxidants, and oxidative stress levels. Mean values were compared between case and control groups using the t test and Wilcoxon rank test.
Pre-eclamptic women showed reduced total omega-3 fatty acids (P<0.05), increased omega-6:omega-3 ratio (P<0.05), higher oxidative stress (P<0.05), and lower antioxidant (P<0.05) levels. Similar trends were also observed in cord samples.
Reduced antioxidants and increased oxidative stress leading to impaired essential polyunsaturated fatty acid levels may be a key factor in the development of pre-eclampsia.
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ABSTRACT: Our earlier studies have highlighted that an altered one carbon metabolism (vitamin B12, folic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid) is associated with preeclampsia. Preeclampsia is also known to be associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. The current study examines whether maternal folic acid, vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation given either individually or in combination can ameliorate the oxidative stress markers in a rat model of pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH). Pregnant Wistar rats were assigned to control and five treatment groups: PIH; PIH + vitamin B12; PIH + folic acid; PIH + Omega-3 fatty acids and PIH + combined micronutrient supplementation (vitamin B12 + folic acid + omega-3 fatty acids). L-Nitroarginine methylester (L-NAME; 50 mg/kg body weight/day) was used to induce hypertension during pregnancy. Blood Pressure (BP) was recorded during pregnancy and dams were dissected at d20 of gestation. Animals from the PIH group demonstrated higher (p<0.01 for both) systolic and diastolic BP; lower (p<0.01) pup weight; higher dam plasma homocysteine (p<0.05) and dam and offspring malondialdehyde (MDA) (p<0.01), lower (p<0.05) placental and offspring liver DHA and higher (p<0.01) tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-ά) levels as compared to control. Individual micronutrient supplementation did not offer much benefit. In contrast, combined supplementation lowered systolic BP, homocysteine, MDA and placental TNF-ά levels in dams and liver MDA and protein carbonyl in the offspring as compared to PIH group. Key constituents of one carbon cycle (folic acid, vitamin B12 and DHA) may play a role in reducing oxidative stress and inflammation in preeclampsia.PLoS ONE 11/2014; 9(11):e111902. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0111902 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Pre-eclampsia or Eclampsia (PE or E) accounts for 25% of cases of maternal mortality worldwide. There is some evidence of a link to dietary factors, but few studies have explored this association in developing countries, where the majority of the burden falls. We examined the association between adequately diversified dietary intake, iron and folic acid supplementation during pregnancy and symptoms suggestive of PE or E in Indian women. Cross-sectional data from India's third National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3, 2005-06) was used for this study. Self-reported symptoms suggestive of PE or E during pregnancy were obtained from 39,657 women aged 15-49 years who had had a live birth in the five years preceding the survey. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the association between adequately diversified dietary intake, iron and folic acid supplementation during pregnancy and symptoms suggestive of PE or E after adjusting for maternal, health and lifestyle factors, and socio-demographic characteristics of the mother. In their most recent pregnancy, 1.2% (n=456) of the study sample experienced symptoms suggestive of PE or E. Mothers who consumed an adequately diversified diet were 34% less likely (OR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.51-0.87) to report PE or E symptoms than mothers with inadequately diversified dietary intake. The likelihood of reporting PE or E symptoms was also 36% lower (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.47-0.88) among those mothers who consumed iron and folic acid supplementation for at least 90 days during their last pregnancy. As a sensitivity analysis, we stratified our models sequentially by education, wealth, antenatal care visits, birth interval, and parity. Our results remained largely unchanged: both adequately diversified dietary intake and iron and folic acid supplementation during pregnancy were associated with a reduced occurrence of PE or E symptoms. Having a adequately diversified dietary intake and iron and folic acid supplementation in pregnancy was associated with a reduced occurrence of symptoms suggestive of PE or E in Indian women.PLoS ONE 03/2015; 10(3):e0119120. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0119120 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Dispensing iron tablets to pregnant women at antenatal clinics is a common practice in Sudan. Iron overload and, consequently, oxidative stress is a possible risk. Objective: In this study, we examined the iron status in pregnant women in correlation to pregnancy outcome. Subjects and methods: The study was conducted in Khartoum state, Sudan in the period December 2007 – February 2009. Venous blood samples were obtained from 123 women at delivery. Undesirable pregnancy outcomes as preeclampsia, low birth weight, caesarean sections and preterm delivery, if any, were recorded. Serum iron and hematological parameters were determined. Results: Mothers were grouped, according to their serum iron levels, as low serum iron (LSI: < 50 7g/dl, n=14), normal serum iron (NSI: 50 -170 7g/dl, n=98) and iron overload (IOL: >170 7g/dl, n=11) groups. The incidence of preeclampsia was highest among the IOL group (72.7%), followed by the LSI group (35.7%) and lowest among the NSI (19.4%) group, p=. The mean babies' birth weights were comparable among the IOL and the LSI groups but both were significantly lower than that among the NSI group. Conclusion: Iron supplementation to pregnant women must be rationalized so that women will benefit without developing undesirable effects. Key words: iron, oxidative stress, preeclampsia. ypertensive disorders complicating pregnancy are common and form one of the deadly traits, along with haemorrhage and infection that results in much of the maternal morbidity and mortality related to pregnancy. Pregnancy induced hypertension is a potential precursor of preeclampsia or eclampsia, which require the presence of proteinuria for diagnosis 1 . The combination of proteinuria and hypertension during pregnancy markedly increases the risk of prenatal mortality and morbidity 2 . The maternal preeclampsia occurs mostly in multiparous patients with known risk factors of preeclampsia such as insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, obesity and chronic hypertension 3 .11/2009; 4(Volume 4, No 3):256 – 261. DOI:10.4314/sjms.v4i3.48318