Ambient particulate matter induces alveolar epithelial cell cycle arrest: Role of G1 cyclins

Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Stanford University Medical Center, 300 Pasteur Drive, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.
FEBS Letters (Impact Factor: 3.34). 12/2007; 581(27):5315-20. DOI: 10.1016/j.febslet.2007.10.020
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We hypothesized that the ambient air pollution particles (particulate matter; PM) induce cell cycle arrest in alveolar epithelial cells (AEC). Exposure of PM (25microg/cm(2)) to AEC induced cells cycle arrest in G1 phase, inhibited DNA synthesis, blocked cell proliferation and caused decrease in cyclin E, A, D1 and Cyclin E- cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-2 kinase activity after 4h. PM induced upregulation of CDK inhibitor, p21 protein and p21 activity in AEC. SiRNAp21 blocked PM-induced downregulation of cyclins and AEC G1 arrest. Accordingly, we provide the evidence that PM induces AEC G1 arrest by altered regulation of G1 cyclins and CDKs.

  • Source
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Epidemiological studies suggest that living near mountaintop coal mining (MTM) activities is one of the contributing factors for high lung cancer incidence. The purpose of this study was to investigate the long-term carcinogenic potential of MTM particulate matter (PMMTM) exposure on human bronchial epithelial cells. Our results show that chronic exposure (3 months) to noncytotoxic, physiological relevant concentration (1 μg/mL) of PMMTM, but not control particle PMCON, induced neoplastic transformation, accelerated cell proliferation, and enhanced cell migration of the exposed lung cells. Xenograft transplantation of the PMMTM-exposed cells in mice caused no apparent tumor formation, but promoted tumor growth of human lung carcinoma H460 cells, suggesting the tumor-promoting effect of PMMTM. Chronic exposure to the main inorganic chemical constituent of PMMTM, molybdenum but not silica, similarly induced cell transformation and tumor promotion, suggesting the contribution of molybdenum, at least in part, in the PMMTM effects. These results provide new evidence for the carcinogenic potential of PMMTM and support further risk assessment and implementation of exposure control for PMMTM.
    Environmental Science and Technology 10/2014; 48(21). DOI:10.1021/es504263u · 5.48 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study explores and characterizes cell cycle alterations induced by urban PM2.5 in the human epithelial cell line BEAS-2B, and elucidates possible mechanisms involved. The cells were exposed to a low dose (7.5 mug/cm2) of Milan winter PM2.5 for different time points, and the cell cycle progression was analyzed by fluorescent microscopy and flow cytometry. Activation of proteins involved in cell cycle control was investigated by Western blotting and DNA damage by 32P-postlabelling, immunostaining and comet assay. The formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was quantified by flow cytometry. The role of PM organic fraction versus washed PM on the cell cycle alterations was also examined. Finally, the molecular pathways activated were further examined using specific inhibitors. Winter PM2.5 induced marked cell cycle alteration already after 3 h of exposure, represented by an increased number of cells (transient arrest) in G2. This effect was associated with an increased phosphorylation of Chk2, while no changes in p53 phosphorylation were observed at this time point. The increase in G2 was followed by a transient arrest in the metaphase/anaphase transition point (10 h), which was associated with the presence of severe mitotic spindle aberrations. The metaphase/anaphase delay was apparently followed by mitotic slippage at 24 h, resulting in an increased number of tetraploid G1 cells and cells with micronuclei (MN), and by apoptosis at 40 h. Winter PM2.5 increased the level of ROS at 2 h and DNA damage (8-oxodG, single- and double stand breaks) was detected after 3 h of exposure. The PM organic fraction caused a similar G2/M arrest and augmented ROS formation, while washed PM had no such effects. DNA adducts were detected after 24 h. Both PM-induced DNA damage and G2 arrest were inhibited by the addition of antioxidants and alpha-naphthoflavone, suggesting the involvement of ROS and reactive electrophilic metabolites formed via a P450-dependent reaction. Milan winter PM2.5 rapidly induces severe cell cycle alterations, resulting in increased frequency of cells with double nuclei and MN. This effect is related to the metabolic activation of PM2.5 organic chemicals, which cause damages to DNA and spindle apparatus.
    Particle and Fibre Toxicology 12/2013; 10(1):63. DOI:10.1186/1743-8977-10-63 · 6.99 Impact Factor


Available from