Adolescent to emerging adulthood smoking trajectories: When do smoking trajectories diverge, and do they predict early adulthood nicotine dependence?

University of Southern California, Alhambra, CA, USA.
Nicotine & Tobacco Research (Impact Factor: 3.3). 12/2007; 9(11):1147-54. DOI: 10.1080/14622200701648359
Source: PubMed


This study evaluated the adolescent tobacco-use trajectories that predict nicotine dependence in early adulthood and when these trajectories start to diverge. As part of a follow-up to a large prevention trial, the present study evaluated 1,017 individuals from early adolescence (age 12) to early adulthood (age 28). Participants were recruited from eight middle schools in Kansas City, Missouri. Students were entering 6th grade or 7th grade at baseline. Smoking was evaluated at baseline, 6 months, at annual follow-ups through high school, and every 18 months thereafter until age 28. The study goals were to determine (a) whether distinct weekly tobacco-use trajectories could be identified between early adolescence and emerging adulthood (ages 12-24); (b) when during development these trajectories diverged; and (c) which trajectories could predict nicotine dependence in early adulthood (ages 26-28). A four-trajectory mixed model (abstainers, low users, late stable users, and early stable users) demonstrated the best fit to the data. Membership in increasingly high-use trajectories placed participants at greater relative risk for becoming nicotine dependent than did membership in lower-use trajectories. General linear models showed greater weekly cigarette consumption for early stable users as early as the first wave of data collection (age 12) and significant differences among all other trajectories by age 15. The findings support the implementation of smoking prevention programs early in middle or junior high school and suggest that adolescents who are already smoking at least two cigarettes per week by age 12 may benefit from additional addiction prevention efforts.

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    • "Whether increasing depression is associated with increasing cigarette use is not known. Taken together, the current literature addressing the relations between smoking and depressive symptoms is lacking longitudinal studies that begin prior to typical onset of smoking (i.e., ages 12–15; Riggs et al. 2007), designs that include simultaneous measures of both cigarette use and depressive symptoms, and modeling how change in both trajectories impact one another across time. This type of design is necessary to test directionality and reciprocality in these relations. "
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    ABSTRACT: Adolescence is an important period for initiation of smoking and manifestation of depression, which are often comorbid. Researchers have examined associations between depressive symptoms and smoking to elucidate whether those with increased depressive symptoms smoke more to self-medicate, whether those who smoke experience increased subsequent depressive symptoms, or both. Collectively, there have been mixed findings; however, studies have been limited by (1) cross-sectional or short-term longitudinal data or (2) the use of methods that test associations, or only one direction in the associations, rather than a fully-reciprocal model to examine directionality. This study examined the associations between smoking and depressive symptoms in a sample of adolescent girls using latent dual change scores to model (1) the effect of smoking on change in depressive symptoms, and simultaneously (2) the effect of depressive symptoms on change in smoking across ages 11-20. Data were from a cohort-sequential prospective longitudinal study (N = 262). Girls were enrolled by age cohort (11, 13, 15, and 17 years) and were primarily White (61 %) or African American (31 %). Data were restructured by age. Every 6 months, girls reported depressive symptoms and cigarette use. Results indicated that controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, higher levels of smoking predicted a greater increase in depressive symptoms across adolescence. These findings suggest that a higher level of cigarette smoking does contribute to more depressive symptoms, which has implications for prevention of depression and for intervention and future research.
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    • "The present study provides a measurement of smoking behavior every six months, which gives a robust description of tobacco usage over this critical period when smoking behaviors may be in transition (Riggs, et al., 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Many young adult smokers routinely smoke less than daily. Prospective, longitudinal data are needed to describe and predict the influences on smoking patterns among nondaily young adult smokers. Methods: Latent class growth analysis was used to examine developmental trajectories and predictors of nondaily cigarette smoking among young adults aged 18 to 21 in the Upper Midwestern United States. Results: There were three distinct groups of nondaily smokers during young adulthood (n=519). College status, previous quit attempts, attitudes toward the meanings of cigarettes, and situational factors influencing smoking were significant predictors of group membership. Conclusions: Nondaily smoking in young adulthood may result in several discrete patterns of smoking between age 18 and 21. Predictors that differentiate smoking trajectories may be useful to promote cessation or reduction in young adult smoking.
    Addictive behaviors 03/2013; 38(7):2267-2272. DOI:10.1016/j.addbeh.2013.03.005 · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    • "(2013), ARTICLE IN PRESS G Model DAD-4703; No. of Pages 8 Orlando et al., 2004; Riggs et al., 2007; White et al., 2002 "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Characterizing smoking behavior is important for informing etiologic models and targeting prevention efforts. This study explored the effects of both individual- and community-level variables in predicting cigarette use vs. non-use and level of use among adolescents as they transition into adulthood. Methods: Data on 14,779 youths (53% female) were drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health); a nationally representative longitudinal cohort. A cohort sequential design allowed for examining trajectories of smoking typologies from age 13 to 32 years. Smoking trajectories were evaluated by using a zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) latent growth analysis and latent class growth analysis modeling approach. Results: Significant relationships emerged between both individual- and community-level variables and smoking outcomes. Maternal and peer smoking predicted increases in smoking over development and were associated with a greater likelihood of belonging to any of the four identified smoking groups versus Non-Users. Conduct problems and depressive symptoms during adolescence were related to cigarette use versus non-use. State-level prevalence of adolescent smoking was related to greater cigarette use during adolescence. Conclusions: Individual- and community-level variables that distinguish smoking patterns within the population aid in understanding cigarette use versus non-use and the quantity of cigarette use into adulthood. Our findings suggest that efforts to prevent cigarette use would benefit from attention to both parental and peer smoking and individual well-being. Future work is needed to better understand the role of variables in the context of multiple levels (individual and community-level) on smoking trajectories.
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