Article

# Increased entropy production in diaphragm muscle of PPAR alpha knockout mice.

Service de Physiologie, Hôpital de Bicêtre, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Université Paris 11, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France. <>

Journal of Theoretical Biology (Impact Factor: 2.35). 02/2008; 250(1):92-102. DOI: 10.1016/j.jtbi.2007.09.022 Source: PubMed

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**ABSTRACT:**Mechanical properties of spontaneously contracting isolated nonpregnant human myometrium (NPHM) were investigated throughout the whole continuum of load from zero load up to isometry. This made it possible to assess the three-dimensional tension-velocity-length (T-V-L) relationship characterizing the level of contractility and to determine crossbridge (CB) kinetics of myosin molecular motors. Seventy-seven muscle strips were obtained from hysterectomy in 42 nonpregnant patients. Contraction and relaxation parameters were measured during spontaneous mechanical activity. The isotonic tension-peak velocity (T-V) relationship was hyperbolic in 30 cases and nonhyperbolic in 47 cases. When the T-V relationship was hyperbolic, the Huxley formalism could be used to calculate CB kinetics and CB unitary force. At the whole muscle level and for a given isotonic load level, part of the V-L phase plane showed a common pathway, so that a given instantaneous length corresponded to only one possible instantaneous velocity, independent of time and initial length. At the molecular level, rate constants for CB attachment and detachment were dramatically low, ∼100 times lower than those of striated muscles, and ∼5 to 10 times lower than those of other smooth muscles. The CB unitary force was ∼1.4 ± 0.1 pN. NPHM shared similar basic contractile properties with striated muscles, reflected in the three-dimensional T-V-L relationship characterizing the contractile level. Low CB attachment and detachment rate constants made it possible to generate normal CB unitary force and normal muscle tension in NPHM, even though it contracted extremely slowly compared with other muscles.Journal of Applied Physiology 07/2011; 111(4):1096-105. · 3.48 Impact Factor - [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]

**ABSTRACT:**Statistical mechanics establishes a link between microscopic properties of matter and its bulk properties. A. Huxley's equations (1957) [1] provide the necessary phenomenological formalism to use statistical mechanics. We compared statistical mechanics in rat diaphragm in tetanus (tet; n=10) and twitch (tw; n=12) modes, in heart in twitch mode (n=20), and in tracheal smooth muscle in tetanus mode (TSM; n=10). This powerful tool makes it possible to determine: (i) statistical entropy (S) which is related to the dispersal of energy and represents a measure of the degree of disorder in muscular system; (ii) thermodynamic force A/T (chemical affinity A and temperature T); (iii) thermodynamic flow (υ); (iv) entropy production rate (A/T×υ), which quantifies irreversible chemical processes generated by myosin crossbridge (CB) molecular motors. All muscles studied operated near equilibrium, i.e., A<2500J/mol and in a stationary linear regime, i.e., A/T varied linearly with υ. The heart operated farther from equilibrium than both diaphragm (tet and tw) and TSM, as attested by its high entropy production rate. S was of the same order of magnitude in heart and TSM but lower in diaphragm (tet and tw). CB kinetics derived from A. Huxley's equations conferred a characteristic profile in terms of statistical mechanics on each muscle type. All studied muscles differed in terms of statistical entropy, chemical affinity, and entropy production rate. Stimulation mode (tet and tw) modulated CB kinetics and statistical mechanics. All muscle types operated near equilibrium and in a stationary linear regime.Comptes rendus biologies 10/2011; 334(10):725-36. · 1.71 Impact Factor - [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]

**ABSTRACT:**Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR alpha, beta/delta and gamma) play a key role in metabolic regulatory processes and gene regulation of cellular metabolism, particularly in the cardiovascular system. Moreover, PPARs have various extra metabolic roles, in circadian rhythms, inflammation and oxidative stress. In this review, we focus mainly on the effects of PPARs on some thermodynamic processes, which can behave either near equilibrium, or far-from-equilibrium. New functions of PPARs are reported in the arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, a human genetic heart disease. It is now possible to link the genetic desmosomal abnormalitiy to the presence of fat in the right ventricle, partly due to an overexpression of PPARgamma. Moreover, PPARs are directly or indirectly involved in cellular oscillatory processes such as the Wnt-b-catenin pathway, circadian rhythms of arterial blood pressure and cardiac frequency and glycolysis metabolic pathway. Dysfunction of clock genes and PPARgamma may lead to hyperphagia, obesity, metabolic syndrome, myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death, In pathological conditions, regulatory processes of the cardiovascular system may bifurcate towards new states, such as those encountered in hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and heart failure. Numerous of these oscillatory mechanisms, organized in time and space, behave far from equilibrium and are "dissipative structures".PPAR Research 01/2010; 2010. · 2.69 Impact Factor

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