Asthma control in Europe: a real-world evaluation based on an international population-based study.
ABSTRACT Epidemiologic evidence related to asthma control in patients from the general population is scanty.
We sought to assess asthma control in several European centers according to the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) guidelines and to investigate its determinants.
In the European Community Respiratory Health Survey II (1999-2002), 1241 adults with asthma were identified and classified into inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) users and non-ICS users in the last year. Control was assessed in both groups by using the GINA proposal (controlled, partly controlled, and uncontrolled asthma), and it was related to potential determinants.
Only 15% (95% CI, 12% to 19%) of subjects who had used ICSs in the last year and 45% (95% CI, 41% to 50%) of non-ICS users had their asthma under control; individuals with uncontrolled asthma accounted for 49% (95% CI, 44% to 53%) and 18% (95% CI, 15% to 21%), respectively. Among ICS users, the prevalence of uncontrolled asthma showed great variability across Europe, ranging from 20% (95% CI, 7% to 41%; Iceland) to 67% (95% CI, 35% to 90%; Italy). Overweight status, chronic cough and phlegm, and sensitization to Cladosporium species were associated with poor control in ICS users. About 65% and 87% of ICS users with uncontrolled and partly controlled asthma, respectively, were on a medication regimen that was less than recommended by the GINA guidelines.
Six of 7 European asthmatic adults using ICSs in the last year did not achieve good disease control. The large majority of subjects with poorly controlled asthma were using antiasthma drugs in a suboptimal way. A wide variability in asthma control emerged across Europe.
Greater attention should be paid to asthma management and to the implementation of the GINA guidelines.
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ABSTRACT: Despite the availability of new pharmacological options and novel combinations of existing drug therapies, the rate of suboptimal asthma control is still high. Therefore, early identification of the clinical and behavioral factors responsible for poor asthma control, and interventions during routine outpatient visits to improve asthma trigger management, are strongly recommended. This study was designed to evaluate the profiles of asthmatic patients and their inhaler treatment devices in relation to asthma control in Turkey. A total of 572 patients with persistent asthma (mean [standard deviation] age: 42.7 [12.1] years; 76% female) were included in this prospective observational study. A baseline visit (0 month, visit 1) and three follow-up visits (1, 3 and 6 months after enrolment) were conducted to collect data on demographics, past medical and asthma history, and inhaler device use. Asthma control was identified in 61.5% of patients at visit 1 and increased to 87.3% at visit 4 (P < 0.001), regardless of sociodemographics, asthma duration, body mass index or smoking status. The presence of asthma-related comorbidity had a significantly negative effect on asthma control (P = 0.004). A significant decrease was determined, in the rate of uncontrolled asthma, upon follow-up among patients who were using a variety of fixed dose combination inhalers (P < 0.001 for each). Logistic regression analysis was used to show that the presence of asthma-related comorbidity (odds ratio [OR], 0.602; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.419; 0.863, P = 0.006) and active smoking (OR, 0.522; 95% CI, 0.330; 0.825, P = 0.005) were significant predictors of asthma control. Our findings indicate that, despite ongoing treatment, asthma control rate was 61.5% at visit 1 in adult outpatients with persistent asthma. However, by the final follow-up 6 months later, this had increased to 87.3%, independent of sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Poor asthma control was associated with asthma-related comorbid diseases, while the efficacy of fixed dose combinations was evident in the achievement of asthma control.Journal of Asthma and Allergy 01/2013; 6:93-101.
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ABSTRACT: Poor adherence to medical treatment is one of the main reasons why patients do not achieve the full benefits of their therapy. It also has a substantial financial weight in terms of money wasted for unused medication and increased healthcare costs including hospitalization due to clinical complications. To provide an overview and examples of the financial and economic consequences of poor adherence to treatment, techniques and devices for monitoring adherence and interventions for improvement of treatment adherence. New electronic devices with monitoring features may help to objectively monitor patients' adherence to a treatment regimen that can help a healthcare professional determine how to intervene to improve adherence and subsequent clinical outcome. Interventions that aim to enhance adherence may confer cost-effectiveness benefits in some indications and settings. The nature of the intervention(s) used depends on a range of factors, including patient preference, therapy area and cost of the intervention. However, there is a pressing need for rigorous trials, as current studies often have major flaws in the economic methodology, especially in terms of incremental analysis and sensitivity analysis. This review has focused on a limited number of therapeutic areas as coverage of a more extensive range of diseases may be beyond the scope of such a summary. Nevertheless, the examples are representative of the challenges encountered in many other diseases. The clinical and economic consequences of non-adherence and interventions to improve compliance reflect the nature and severity of non-adherence, as well as the pathophysiology and severity of the disease. Interventions that aim to enhance adherence may confer cost-effectiveness benefits in some indications and settings, and good adherence can help payers and providers contain costs by extracting maximum value from their investment in therapies.Journal of Medical Economics 07/2011; 14(5):594-608.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to estimate the associations between the prevalence of asthma symptoms in schoolchildren and meteorological variables in west European countries that participated in the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children (ISAAC), Phase III 1997-2003. An ecologic study was carried out. The prevalence of asthma was obtained from this study from 48 centers in 14 countries, and meteorological variables from those stations closest to ISAAC centers, together with other socioeconomic and health care variables. Multilevel mixed-effects linear regression models were used. For schoolchildren aged 6-7 years, the prevalence rate of asthma decreased with an increase in mean annual sunshine hours, showed a positive association with rainy weather, and warm temperature, and a negative one with relative humidity and physician density (PD). Current wheeze prevalence was stronger in autumn/winter seasons and decreased with increasing PD. Severe current wheeze decreased with PD. For schoolchildren aged 13-14 years, the prevalence rates of asthma and current wheeze increased with rainy weather, and these rates decreased with increased PD. Current wheeze, as measured by a video questionnaire, was inversely associated with sunny weather, and nurse density. Severe current wheeze prevalence was stronger during autumn/winter seasons, decreased with PD, and indoor chlorinated public swimming pool density, and increased with rainy weather. Meteorological factors, including sunny and rainy weather, and PD may have some effect on the prevalence rates of asthma symptoms in children from west European countries.International Journal of Biometeorology 11/2012; · 2.59 Impact Factor