Asthma control in Europe: A real-world evaluation based on an international population-based study
ABSTRACT Epidemiologic evidence related to asthma control in patients from the general population is scanty.
We sought to assess asthma control in several European centers according to the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) guidelines and to investigate its determinants.
In the European Community Respiratory Health Survey II (1999-2002), 1241 adults with asthma were identified and classified into inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) users and non-ICS users in the last year. Control was assessed in both groups by using the GINA proposal (controlled, partly controlled, and uncontrolled asthma), and it was related to potential determinants.
Only 15% (95% CI, 12% to 19%) of subjects who had used ICSs in the last year and 45% (95% CI, 41% to 50%) of non-ICS users had their asthma under control; individuals with uncontrolled asthma accounted for 49% (95% CI, 44% to 53%) and 18% (95% CI, 15% to 21%), respectively. Among ICS users, the prevalence of uncontrolled asthma showed great variability across Europe, ranging from 20% (95% CI, 7% to 41%; Iceland) to 67% (95% CI, 35% to 90%; Italy). Overweight status, chronic cough and phlegm, and sensitization to Cladosporium species were associated with poor control in ICS users. About 65% and 87% of ICS users with uncontrolled and partly controlled asthma, respectively, were on a medication regimen that was less than recommended by the GINA guidelines.
Six of 7 European asthmatic adults using ICSs in the last year did not achieve good disease control. The large majority of subjects with poorly controlled asthma were using antiasthma drugs in a suboptimal way. A wide variability in asthma control emerged across Europe.
Greater attention should be paid to asthma management and to the implementation of the GINA guidelines.
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ABSTRACT: Asthma is a chronic disease that may affect daily activities and quality of life. Asthmatics have higher incidence of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and asthma is associated with sinonasal inflammation and nasal symptoms, that all impair quality of life. Worsening of asthma has been found associated with levels of nitrogen dioxide as traffic indicator. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of traffic pollution indicated by nitrogen oxides (NO2 and NOx) on quality of life in asthmatic persons, individuals with CRS and controls. Within the Swedish Ga(2)len (Global Allergy and Asthma European Network), 605 asthmatics with and without CRS, 110 individuals with CRS only and 226 controls from four cities were surveyed. The mini Asthma Quality of life Questionnaire (mAQLQ) and the Euro Quality of Life (EQ-5D) health questionnaire were used. Air pollution concentrations at the home address were modelled using dispersion models. Levels of NO2 (geometric mean 10.1 μg/m(3) (95% CI 9.80 to 10.5) and NOx (12.1 μg/m(3), 11.7 to 12.6) were similar among conditions (controls, asthmatics, individuals with CRS and asthmatics with CRS). The mAQLQ overall score was not found associated with levels of NO2 or NOx, with or without adjustments, and neither was scores within each of the four domains of mAQLQ: symptoms, activity limitations, emotional functions and effects of environmental stimuli. The mean EQ-5D index value, based on the five dimensions mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain/discomfort and anxiety depression, was also found unrelated to NO2 and NOx. At moderate exposure levels traffic pollution appears not to affect quality of life.05/2014; 1(1):e000039. DOI:10.1136/bmjresp-2014-000039
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ABSTRACT: Background In vivo phosphorylation of sphingosine analogs with their ensuing binding and activation of their cell-surface sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors is regarded as the main immunomodulatory mechanism of this new class of drugs. Prophylactic treatment with sphingosine analogs interferes with experimental asthma by impeding the migration of dendritic cells to draining lymph nodes. However, whether these drugs can also alleviate allergic airway inflammation after its onset remains to be determined. Herein, we investigated to which extent and by which mechanisms the sphingosine analog AAL-R interferes with key features of asthma in a murine model during ongoing allergic inflammation induced by Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus.MethodsBALB/c mice were exposed to either D. pteronyssinus or saline, intranasally, once-daily for 10 consecutive days. Mice were treated intratracheally with either AAL-R, its pre-phosphorylated form AFD-R, or the vehicle before every allergen challenge over the last four days, i.e. after the onset of allergic airway inflammation. On day 11, airway responsiveness to methacholine was measured; inflammatory cells and cytokines were quantified in the airways; and the numbers and/or viability of T cells, B cells and dendritic cells were assessed in the lungs and draining lymph nodes.ResultsAAL-R decreased airway hyperresponsiveness induced by D. pteronyssinus by nearly 70%. This was associated with a strong reduction of IL-5 and IL-13 levels in the airways and with a decreased eosinophilic response. Notably, the lung CD4+ T cells were almost entirely eliminated by AAL-R, which concurred with enhanced apoptosis/necrosis in that cell population. This inhibition occurred in the absence of dendritic cell number modulation in draining lymph nodes. On the other hand, the pre-phosphorylated form AFD-R, which preferentially acts on cell-surface sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors, was relatively impotent at enhancing cell death, which led to a less efficient control of T cell and eosinophil responses in the lungs.Conclusion Airway delivery of the non-phosphorylated sphingosine analog, but not its pre-phosphorylated counterpart, is highly efficient at controlling the local T cell response after the onset of allergic airway inflammation. The mechanism appears to involve local induction of lymphocyte apoptosis/necrosis, while mildly affecting dendritic cell and T cell accumulation in draining lymph nodes.
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ABSTRACT: Treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) requires a personalized approach according to the clinical characteristics of the patients, the level of severity, and the response to the different therapies. Furthermore, patients with the same level of severity measured by the degree of airflow obstruction or even with multidimensional indices may have very different symptoms and limitations for daily activities. The concept of control has been extensively developed in asthma but has not been defined in COPD. Here, we propose a definition of COPD control based on the concepts of impact and stability. Impact is a cross-sectional concept that can be measured by questionnaires such as the COPD Assessment Test or the Clinical COPD Questionnaire. Alternatively, impact can be assessed by the degree of dyspnea, the use of rescue medication, the level of physical activity, and sputum color. Stability is a longitudinal concept that requires the absence of exacerbations and deterioration in the aforementioned variables or in the COPD Assessment Test or Clinical COPD Questionnaire scores. Control is defined by low impact (adjusted for severity) and stability. The concept of control in COPD can be useful in the decision making regarding an increase or decrease in medication in the stable state.International Journal of COPD 01/2014; 9:1397-405. DOI:10.2147/COPD.S71370