Age-related decrease in axonal transport measured by MR imaging in vivo.
ABSTRACT Axonal transport is a crucial process for neuronal homeostasis and cell functions. In vitro studies have indicated transport rates decrease with age. Disruption of axonal transport has been implicated in age-associated neurodegenerative disorders. We hypothesized that aged rats would show decreased transport in the brain, which could be measured using in vivo manganese-enhanced MR imaging (Mn-MRI) and parametric estimation. Serial T1-weighted images were obtained at pre- and post-administration of MnCl(2) in rats scanned longitudinally (n=4) and in a separate aged group (n=3). Subtraction analysis was performed for group-wise statistical comparison on a pixel-by-pixel basis. Change in intensity over time was plotted for the olfactory bulb and anterior and posterior olfactory tract. Bulk transport of material was estimated over an initial 72 h. Tracer kinetic estimation of time-intensity data, based on a mass transport model, used intensity change in the bulb as input function for subsequent changes in the tract. Time to the peak of Mn(2+) flow was estimated for both anterior and posterior tracts. Results indicated age-related decreases in axonal transport rate and bulk transport of material in the olfactory tract of living rat brains. Longitudinally scanned, mid-age group was decreased by 58% and the aged group by 71% of young rate (neuronal transport=4.07+/-1.24 mm/h, 1.72+/-0.89 mm/h, and 1.16+/-0.18 mm/h for young, mid-age, and aged, respectively). Neuronal transport rate decreases correlated with increased age. The use of kinetic analysis combined with dynamic manganese enhanced MR imaging provides a unique opportunity to study this important neuronal process.
SourceAvailable from: Miso Mitkovski[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Abnormalities and impairments in axonal transport are suggested to strongly contribute to the pathological alterations underlying AD. The exact mechanisms leading to axonopathy are currently unclear, but it was recently suggested that APP expression itself triggers axonal degeneration. We used APP transgenic mice and crossed them on a hemi- or homozygous PS1 knock-in background (APP/PS1KI). Depending on the mutant PS1 dosage, we demonstrate a clear aggravation in both plaque-associated and plaque-distant axonal degeneration, despite of an unchanged APP expression level. Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides were found to accumulate in axonal swellings as well as in axons and apical dendrites proximate to neurons accumulating intraneuronal Aβ in their cell bodies. This suggests that Aβ can be transported within neurites thereby contributing to axonal deficits. In addition, diffuse extracellular Aβ deposits were observed in the close vicinity of axonal spheroids accumulating intracellular Aβ, which might be indicative of a local Aβ release from sites of axonal damage.Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience 06/2014; 6:139. DOI:10.3389/fnagi.2014.00139 · 2.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The toxicity of the class of chemicals known as the organophosphates (OP) is most commonly attributed to the inhibition of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase. However, there is significant evidence that this mechanism may not account for all of the deleterious neurologic and neurobehavioral symptoms of OP exposure, especially those associated with levels that produce no overt signs of acute toxicity. In the study described here we evaluated the effects of the commonly used OP-pesticide, chlorpyrifos (CPF) on axonal transport in the brains of living rats using manganese (Mn(2+))-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) of the optic nerve (ON) projections from the retina to the superior colliculus (SC). T1-weighted MEMRI scans were evaluated at 6 and 24h after intravitreal injection of Mn(2+). As a positive control for axonal transport deficits, initial studies were conducted with the tropolone alkaloid colchicine administered by intravitreal injection. In subsequent studies both single and repeated exposures to CPF were evaluated for effects on axonal transport using MEMRI. As expected, intravitreal injection of colchicine (2.5μg) produced a robust decrease in transport of Mn(2+) along the optic nerve (ON) and to the superior colliculus (SC) (as indicated by the reduced MEMRI contrast). A single subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of CPF (18.0mg/kg) was not associated with significant alterations in the transport of Mn(2+). Conversely, 14-days of repeated s.c. exposure to CPF (18.0mg/kg/day) was associated with decreased transport of Mn(2+) along the ONs and to the SC, an effect that was also present after a 30-day (CPF-free) washout period. These results indicate that repeated exposures to a commonly used pesticide, CPF can result in persistent alterations in axonal transport in the living mammalian brain. Given the fundamental importance of axonal transport to neuronal function, these observations may (at least in part) explain some of the long term neurological deficits that have been observed in humans who have been repeatedly exposed to doses of OPs not associated with acute toxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.NeuroToxicology 01/2015; 47. DOI:10.1016/j.neuro.2015.01.002 · 3.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Axonal transport is critical for supplying newly synthesised proteins, organelles, mRNAs and other cargoes from neuronal cell bodies into axons. Its impairment in many neurodegenerative conditions appears likely to contribute to pathogenesis. Axonal transport also declines during normal ageing, but little is known about the timing of these changes, or about the effect of ageing on specific cargoes in individual axons. This is important for understanding mechanisms of age-related axon loss and age-related axonal disorders. Here we use fluorescence live-imaging of peripheral nerve and CNS tissue explants to investigate vesicular and mitochondrial axonal transport. Interestingly, we identify two distinct periods of change, one during young adulthood and one in old age, separated by a relatively stable plateau during most of adult life. We also find that after tibial nerve regeneration, even in old animals, neurons are able to support higher transport rates of each cargo for a prolonged period. Thus, the age-related decline in axonal transport is not an inevitable consequence of either ageing neurons or an ageing systemic milieu.Neurobiology of Aging 09/2014; 36(2). DOI:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2014.09.018 · 4.85 Impact Factor