Article

Automictic reproduction in interspecific hybrids of poeciliid fish.

Department of Physiological Chemistry I, University of Würzburg, Biocenter, Am Hubland, 97074 Würzburg, Germany.
Current Biology (Impact Factor: 9.49). 12/2007; 17(22):1948-53. DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2007.09.064
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Automixis, the process whereby the fusion of meiotic products restores the diploid state of the egg, is a common mode of reproduction in plants but has also been described in invertebrate animals. In vertebrates, however, automixis has so far only been discussed as one of several explanations for isolated cases of facultative parthenogenesis. Analyzing oocyte formation in F1 hybrids derived from Poecilia mexicana limantouri and P. latipinna crosses (the cross that led to the formation of the gynogenetic Poecilia formosa), we found molecular evidence for automictic oocyte production. The mechanism involves the random fusion of meiotic products after the second meiotic division. The fertilization of diploid oocytes gives rise to fully viable triploid offspring. Although the automictic production of diploid oocytes as seen in these F1 hybrids clearly represents a preadaptation to parthenogenetic reproduction, it is also a powerful intrinsic postzygotic isolation mechanism because the resulting next generation triploids were always sterile. The mechanism described here can explain facultative parthenogenesis, as well as varying ploidy levels reported in different animal groups. Most importantly, at least some of the reported cases of triploidy in humans can now be traced back to automixis.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
79 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Amazon molly, Poecilia formosa (Teleostei: Poeciliinae) is an unisexual, all-female species. It evolved through the hybridisation of two closely related sexual species and exhibits clonal reproduction by sperm dependent parthenogenesis (or gynogenesis) where the sperm of a parental species is only used to activate embryogenesis of the apomictic, diploid eggs but does not contribute genetic material to the offspring.Here we provide and describe the first de novo assembled transcriptome of the Amazon molly in comparison with its maternal ancestor, the Atlantic molly Poecilia mexicana. The transcriptome data were produced through sequencing of single end libraries (100 bp) with the Illumina sequencing technique. 83,504,382 reads for the Amazon molly and 81,625,840 for the Atlantic molly were assembled into 127,283 and 78,961 contigs for the Amazon molly and the Atlantic molly, respectively. 63% resp. 57% of the contigs could be annotated with gene ontology terms after sequence similarity comparisons. Furthermore, we were able to identify genes normally involved in reproduction and especially in meiosis also in the transcriptome dataset of the apomictic reproducing Amazon molly. We assembled and annotated the transcriptome of a non-model organism, the Amazon molly, without a reference genome (de novo). The obtained dataset is a fundamental resource for future research in functional and expression analysis. Also, the presence of 30 meiosis-specific genes within a species where no meiosis is known to take place is remarkable and raises new questions for future research.
    BMC Research Notes 04/2014; 7(1):249.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Important questions remain about the long-term survival and adaptive significance of eukaryotic asexual lineages. Numerous papers dealing with sex advantages still continued to compare parthenogenetic populations versus sexual populations arguing that sex demonstrates a better fitness. Because asexual lineages do not possess any recombination mechanisms favoring rapid changes in the face of severe environmental conditions, they should be considered as an evolutionary dead-end. Nevertheless, reviewing literature dealing with asexual reproduction, it is possible to draw three stimulating conclusions. (1) Asexual reproduction in eukaryotes considerably differs from prokaryotes which experience recombination but neither meiosis nor syngamy. Recombination and meiosis would be a driving force for sexual reproduction. Eukaryotes should therefore be considered as a continuum of sexual organisms that are more or less capable (and sometimes incapable) of sexual reproduction. (2) Rather than revealing ancestral eukaryotic forms, most known lineages of asexual eukaryotes have lost sex due to a genomic conflict affecting their sexual capacity. Thus, it could be argued that hybridization is a major cause of their asexuality. Asexuality may have evolved as a reproductive mechanism reducing conflict within organisms. (3) It could be proposed that, rather than being generalists, parthenogenetic hybrid lineages could be favored when exploiting peculiar restricted ecological niches, following the “frozen niche variation” model. Although hybrid events may result in sex loss, probably caused by genomic conflict, asexual hybrids could display new original adaptive traits, and the rapid colonization of environments through clonal reproduction could favor their long-term survival, leading to evolutionary changes and hybrid speciation. Examination of the evolutionary history of asexual lineages reveals that evolutionary processes act through transitional stages in which even very small temporary benefits may be enough to counter the expected selective disadvantages.
    Evolutionary Biology 40(3). · 2.39 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Juvenile fish trade monitoring is an important task on Brazilian fish farms. However, the identification of juvenile fish through morphological analysis is not feasible, particularly between interspecific hybrids and pure species individuals, making the monitoring of these individuals difficult. Hybrids can be erroneously identified as pure species in breeding facilities, which might reduce production on farms and negatively affect native populations due to escapes or stocking practices. In the present study, we used a multi-approach analysis (molecular and cytogenetic markers) to identify juveniles of three serrasalmid species (Colossoma macropomum, Piaractus mesopotamicus and Piaractus brachypomus) and their hybrids in different stocks purchased from three seed producers in Brazil. The main findings of this study were the detection of intergenus backcrossing between the hybrid ♀ patinga (P. mesopotamicus×P. brachypomus)×♂ C. macropomum and the occurrence of one hybrid triploid individual. This atypical specimen might result from automixis, a mechanism that produces unreduced gametes in some organisms. Moreover, molecular identification indicated that hybrid individuals are traded as pure species or other types of interspecific hybrids, particularly post-F1 individuals. These results show that serrasalmid fish genomes exhibit high genetic heterogeneity, and multi-approach methods and regulators could improve the surveillance of the production and trade of fish species and their hybrids, thereby facilitating the sustainable development of fish farming.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(3):e89902. · 3.53 Impact Factor

Full-text (3 Sources)

Download
33 Downloads
Available from
Jun 28, 2014