The DNA damage signalling kinase ATM is aberrantly reduced or lost in BRCA1/BRCA2-deficient and ER/PR/ERBB2-triple-negative breast cancer.
ABSTRACT The ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) kinase is a key transducer of DNA damage signals within the genome maintenance machinery and a tumour suppressor whose germline mutations predispose to familial breast cancer. ATM signalling is constitutively activated in early stages of diverse types of human malignancies and cell culture models in response to oncogene-induced DNA damage providing a barrier against tumour progression. As BRCA1 and BRCA2 are also components of the genome maintenance network and their mutations predispose to breast cancer, we have examined the ATM expression in human breast carcinomas of BRCA1/2 mutation carriers, sporadic cases and familial non-BRCA1/2 patients. Our results show that ATM protein expression is aberrantly reduced more frequently among BRCA1 (33%; P=0.0003) and BRCA2 (30%; P=0.0009) tumours than in non-BRCA1/2 tumours (10.7%). Furthermore, the non-BRCA1/2 tumours with reduced ATM expression were more often estrogen receptor (ER) negative (P=0.0002), progesterone receptor (PR) negative (P=0.004) and were of higher grade (P=0.0004). In our series of 1013 non-BRCA1/2 cases, ATM was more commonly deficient (20%; P=0.0006) and p53 was overabundant (47%; P<0.0000000001) among the difficult-to-treat ER/PR/ERBB2-triple-negative subset of tumours compared with cases that expressed at least one of these receptors (10 and 16% of aberrant ATM and p53, respectively). We propose a model of 'conditional haploinsufficiency' for BRCA1/2 under conditions of enhanced DNA damage in precancerous lesions resulting in more robust activation and hence increased selection for inactivation or loss of ATM in tumours of BRCA1/2 mutation carriers, with implications for genomic instability and curability of diverse subsets of human breast cancer.
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ABSTRACT: Here we report that RNA interference against ATM inhibited p53 accumulation in cells expressing oncogenic STAT5 and cooperated with Rb inactivation to suppress STAT5A-induced senescence. Knocking down ATM was also effective to bypass E2F1-induced senescence and in combination with Rb inactivation, inhibited RasV12-induced senescence. Cells that senesced in response to ca-STAT5A or RasV12 accumulated DNA damage foci and activated ATM, ATR, Chk1, and Chk2, indicating that aberrant oncogene activation induces a DNA damage signaling response. Intriguingly, bypassing oncogene-induced senescence by inactivation of p53 and Rb did not eliminate the accumulation of oncogene-induced DNA damage foci (ODDI), suggesting a mechanism that may limit transformation in immortalized cells.Genes & Development 02/2007; 21(1):43-8. · 12.44 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The Chk2 kinase is a tumor suppressor and key transducer of DNA-damage checkpoints. We show that the human Chk2 protein is relatively stable, nuclear, and responding to gamma-radiation throughout the cell cycle. Contrary to the retinoblastoma protein-regulated, labile Chk1 kinase restricted to S-G(2) phases, Chk2 remains activatable even in quiescent and differentiating cells. In human tissues, Chk2 is homogeneously expressed in renewing cell populations such as epidermis or intestine, heterogeneous in conditionally renewing tissues, and absent or cytoplasmic in static tissues such as muscle or brain. These data highlight striking differences between Chk2 and Chk1 and show unexpected correlation of Chk2 expression with tissue biology.Cancer Research 08/2001; 61(13):4990-3. · 8.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The Brca1 (breast cancer gene 1) tumor suppressor protein is phosphorylated in response to DNA damage. Results from this study indicate that the checkpoint protein kinase ATM (mutated in ataxia telangiectasia) was required for phosphorylation of Brca1 in response to ionizing radiation. ATM resides in a complex with Brca1 and phosphorylated Brca1 in vivo and in vitro in a region that contains clusters of serine-glutamine residues. Phosphorylation of this domain appears to be functionally important because a mutated Brca1 protein lacking two phosphorylation sites failed to rescue the radiation hypersensitivity of a Brca1-deficient cell line. Thus, phosphorylation of Brca1 by the checkpoint kinase ATM may be critical for proper responses to DNA double-strand breaks and may provide a molecular explanation for the role of ATM in breast cancer.Science 12/1999; 286(5442):1162-6. · 31.03 Impact Factor