V02 'overshoot' during moderate-intensity exercise in endurance-trained athletes: the influence of exercise modality.
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of exercise modality on the 'overshoot' in V(O2) that has been reported following the onset of moderate-intensity (below the gas exchange threshold, GET) exercise in endurance athletes. Seven trained endurance cyclists and seven trained endurance runners completed six square-wave transitions to a work-rate or running speed requiring 80% of mode-specific GET during both cycle and treadmill running exercise. The kinetics of V(O2) was assessed using non-linear regression and any overshoot in V(O2) was quantified as the integrated volume (IV) of O(2) consumed above the steady-state requirement. During cycling, an overshoot in V(O2) was evident in all seven cyclists (IV = 136 +/- 41 ml) and in four runners (IV = 81 +/- 94 ml). During running, an overshoot in V(O2) was evident in four runners (IV = 72 +/- 61 ml) but no cyclists. These data challenge the notion that V(O2) always rises towards a steady-state with near-exponential kinetics in this exercise intensity domain. The greater incidence of the V(O2) overshoot during cycling (11/14 subjects) compared to running (4/14 subjects) indicates that the overshoot phenomenon is related to an interaction between high levels of aerobic fitness and exercise modality. We speculate that a transient loss in muscle efficiency as a consequence of a non-constant ATP requirement following the onset of constant-work-rate exercise or an initially excessive recruitment of motor units (relative to the work-rate) might contribute to the overshoot phenomenon.
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ABSTRACT: When running indoors on a treadmill, the lack of air resistance results in a lower energy cost compared with running outdoors at the same velocity. A slight incline of the treadmill gradient can be used to increase the energy cost in compensation. The aim of this study was to determine the treadmill gradient that most accurately reflects the energy cost of outdoor running. Nine trained male runners, thoroughly habituated to treadmill running, ran for 6 min at six different velocities (2.92, 3.33, 3.75, 4.17, 4.58 and 5.0 m s-1) with 6 min recovery between runs. This routine was repeated six times, five times on a treadmill set at different grades (0%, 0%, 1%, 2%, 3%) and once outdoors along a level road. Duplicate collections of expired air were taken during the final 2 min of each run to determine oxygen consumption. The repeatability of the methodology was confirmed by high correlations (r = 0.99) and non-significant differences between the duplicate expired air collections and between the repeated runs at 0% grade. The relationship between oxygen uptake (VO2) and velocity for each grade was highly linear (r > 0.99). At the two lowest velocities, VO2 during road running was not significantly different from treadmill running at 0% or 1% grade, but was significantly less than 2% and 3% grade. For 3.75 m s-1, the VO2 during road running was significantly different from treadmill running at 0%, 2% and 3% grades but not from 1% grade. For 4.17 and 4.58 m s-1, the VO2 during road running was not significantly different from that at 1% or 2% grade but was significantly greater than 0% grade and significantly less than 3% grade. At 5.0 m s-1, the VO2 for road running fell between the VO2 value for 1% and 2% grade treadmill running but was not significantly different from any of the treadmill grade conditions. This study demonstrates equality of the energetic cost of treadmill and outdoor running with the use of a 1% treadmill grade over a duration of approximately 5 min and at velocities between 2.92 and 5.0 m s-1.Journal of Sports Sciences 09/1996; 14(4):321-7. · 2.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The hypothesis that the adaptation to endurance exercise training included a faster increase in blood flow at the onset of exercise was tested in 12 healthy young men who endurance-trained (ET) 2 h/day, for 10 days at 65% VO2 peak on a cycle ergometer, and in 11 non-training control (C) subjects. Blood flow was estimated from changes in femoral artery mean blood velocity (MBV) by pulsed Doppler. Beat-by-beat changes in cardiac output (CO) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were obtained by impedance cardiography and a Finapres finger cuff, respectively. MBV, MAP and CO were measured at rest and during 5 min of dynamic knee extension exercise. Both legs worked alternately with 2 s raising and lowering a weight (15% maximal voluntary contraction) followed by 2 s rest while the other leg raised and lowered the weight. In the ET group the time to 63% (T63%) of the approximately exponential increase in MBV following 10 days of training (8.6 +/- 1.2 s, mean +/- s.e.) was significantly faster than the Day 0 response (14.2 +/- 2.1 s, P < 0.05). The T63% of femoral artery vascular conductance (VCfa) was also faster following 10 days of ET (9.4 +/- 0.9 s) versus Day 0 (16.0 +/- 2.5 s) (0.05). There was no change in the T63% of both MBV and VCfa for the C group. The kinetics of CO were not significantly affected by ET, but the amplitude of CO in the adaptive phase, and at steady state, were significantly greater (P < 0.05) at Day 10 compared to Day 0 for the ET group with no change in the C group. These data supported the hypothesis that endurance training resulted in faster adaptation of blood flow to exercising muscle, and further showed that this response occurred early in the training program.Cardiovascular Research 02/1996; 31(2):278-86. · 5.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Contractile and energetic properties of human skeletal muscle have been studied for many years in vivo in the body. It has been, however, difficult to identify the specific role of muscle fibres in modulating muscle performance. Recently it has become possible to dissect short segments of single human muscle fibres from biopsy samples and make them work in nearly physiologic conditions in vitro. At the same time, the development of molecular biology has provided a wealth of information on muscle proteins and their genes and new techniques have allowed analysis of the protein isoform composition of the same fibre segments used for functional studies. In this way the histological identification of three main human muscle fibre types (I, IIA and IIX, previously called IIB) has been followed by a precise description of molecular composition and functional and biochemical properties. It has become apparent that the expression of different protein isoforms and therefore the existence of distinct muscle fibre phenotypes is one of the main determinants of the muscle performance in vivo. The present review will first describe the mechanisms through which molecular diversity is generated and how fibre types can be identified on the basis of structural and functional characteristics. Then the molecular and functional diversity will be examined with regard to (1) the myofibrillar apparatus; (2) the sarcolemma and the sarcoplasmic reticulum; and (3) the metabolic systems devoted to producing ATP. The last section of the review will discuss the advantage that fibre diversity can offer in optimizing muscle contractile performance.Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology 02/2000; 73(2-4):195-262. · 2.91 Impact Factor