Alterations in the expression of PDCD4 in ductal carcinoma of the breast.
ABSTRACT Programmed cell death 4 gene (PDCD4), an in vivo repressor of transformation, was originally isolated from a human glioma library by screening it with an antibody against a nuclear antigen in proliferating cells. PDCD4 functions as a transformation repressor by inhibiting the activity of the RNA helicase, eIF4A. We previously showed that retinoids, anti-estrogens and HER2/neu antagonist induce PDCD4 expression in human breast cancer cell lines. Very little is known about the expression of PDCD4 in human breast cancer tissues or the significance of the PDCD4 expression in breast cancer. To gain insight into the pattern of the PDCD4 expression in breast tissues, we performed an immunohistochemical analysis of the PDCD4 expression in 80 archived, normal and ductal breast carcinoma tissues (invasive and carcinoma in situ) (DCIS) and correlated PDCD4 expression with expression of known prognostic markers in breast cancer (ER, PR and HER2/neu). To assess the role of methylation on PDCD4 expression in breast cancer cells, breast cancer cell lines were treated with the demethylating agent 5-deoxy-azacytidine and analyzed for PDCD4 expression. We observed primarily nuclear localization of PDCD4 in ductal carcinoma in situ compared to normal breast tissues where the PDCD4 expression was predominantly cytoplasmic. This was seen more frequently in DCIS cases that were ER positive and HER2/neu negative samples. PDCD4 expression was markedly decreased in the invasive ductal carcinoma. We did not observe any significant relationship between PDCD4 expression and the expression of RAR or PR. In T-47D, MDA-MB-435 and MDA-MB-231 cells, treatment with 5-deoxy-azacytidine did not result in an increased expression of PDCD4. The present study demonstrated altered cellular localization of PDCD4 when comparing normal breast to neoplastic breast tissues. In addition, there was a decreased expression of PDCD4 in breast cancer when compared with normal breast tissue. A loss of the PDCD4 expression in breast cancer cell lines does not appear to result from hypermethylation of the PDCD4 promoter.
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ABSTRACT: Pdcd4 (programmed cell death 4) has been known as a tumour suppressor gene and potential target for anticancer therapies for several years. Initially, Pdcd4 was identified as a gene that is up-regulated during apoptosis, but its precise role still remains to be defined. However, there is increasing evidence that Pdcd4 levels influence transcription, as well as translation, modulate different signal transduction pathways and might act as a tumour suppressor. Interestingly, recent data suggest that Pdcd4 function may depend on cell type and/or genetic background. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding the function and regulation of Pdcd4.Biology of the Cell 07/2009; 101(6):309-17. DOI:10.1042/BC20080191 · 3.87 Impact Factor
Article: SIGNALLING TOWARDS IRES
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ABSTRACT: Trastuzumab is established as standard care for patients with HER2-positive breast cancer both in the adjuvant and metastatic setting. However, 50% of the patients do not respond to the trastuzumab therapy, and therefore new predictive biomarkers are highly warranted. MicroRNAs (miRs) constitute a new group of biomarkers and their cellular expression can be determined in tumor samples by in situ hybridization (ISH) analysis. miR-21 is highly prevalent and up-regulated in breast cancer and has been linked to drug resistance in clinical and in vitro settings. To determine expression patterns of miR-21 in high-grade breast cancers, we examined miR-21 expression in 22 HER2-positive tumors and 15 HER2-negative high-grade tumors by ISH. The histological examination indicated that patient samples could be divided into three major expression patterns: miR-21 predominantly in tumor stroma, predominantly in cancer cells, or in both stromal and cancer cells. There was no obvious difference between the HER2-positive and HER2-negative tumors in terms of the miR-21 expression patterns and intensities. To explore the possibility that miR-21 expression levels and/or cellular localization could predict resistance to adjuvant trastuzumab in HER2-positive breast cancer patients, we analyzed additional 16 HER2-positive tumors from patients who were treated with trastuzumab in the adjuvant setting. Eight of the 16 patients showed clinical recurrence and were considered resistant. Examination of the miR-21 expression patterns and intensities revealed no association between the miR-21 scores in the cancer cell population (p = 0.69) or the stromal cells population (p = 0.13) and recurrent disease after adjuvant trastuzumab. Thus, our findings show that elevated miR-21 expression does not predict resistance to adjuvant trastuzumab.Frontiers in Oncology 08/2014; 4:207. DOI:10.3389/fonc.2014.00207