Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may protect against Parkinson disease
ABSTRACT Markers of neuroinflammation, including activated microglia and increased levels of circulating proinflammatory cytokines, have been observed in the brains and CSF of patients with Parkinson disease (PD). Yet the link between anti-inflammatory agents and PD in humans remains uncertain, despite indications that neuroinflammation may contribute to cell death in the PD brain and experimental evidence of anti-inflammatory agents such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) exerting neuroprotective effects in animal models.
Using a population-based approach, we studied NSAID use among 293 incident idiopathic PD cases and 286 age-, race-, and gender-matched controls from three rural California counties.
Our data suggested a decreased risk of PD among regular (>or=2 pills/week for at least 1 month) aspirin NSAID users (OR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.56 to 1.15). A stronger protective effect was observed for regular nonaspirin NSAID users (OR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.35 to 0.79), particularly those who reported 2 or more years of use (OR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.26 to 0.74). The aspirin effect estimates differed by gender, showing a protective effect only in women, especially among long term (>or=24 months) regular users (OR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.26 to 1.02).
Our study contributes to the growing body of literature suggesting a protective role for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in Parkinson disease (PD). Given our results and the biologic plausibility of a neuroprotective function for NSAIDs there is a pressing need for further studies elucidating the protective role such drugs may play in PD.
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ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD) is the first and second most prevalent motor and neurodegenerative disease, respectively. The clinical symptoms of PD result from a loss of midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons. However, the molecular cause of DA neuron loss remains elusive. Mounting evidence implicates enhanced inflammatory response in the development and progression of PD pathology. This review examines current research connecting PD and inflammatory response. © 2015 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.Experimental Biology and Medicine 03/2015; DOI:10.1177/1535370215576313 · 2.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The molecular mechanism of neuronal loss and synaptic damage in Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and Lewy body dementia (LBD) is poorly understood and could differ among different types of neurodegenerative processes. However, the presence of neuroinflammation is a common feature of dementia. In this setting, reactive microgliosis, oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction are associated with the pathogenesis of all types of neurodegenerative dementia. Moreover, an increased body of evidence suggests that microglia may play a central role in AD progression. In this paper, we review the scientific literature on neuroinflammation related to the most common neurodegenerative dementias (AD, PDD, FTD and LBD) focussing on the possible molecular mechanisms and the available clinical evidence. Furthermore, we discuss the neuroimaging techniques that are currently used for the study of neuroinflammation in human brain.Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports 04/2015; 15(4):531. DOI:10.1007/s11910-015-0531-7 · 3.67 Impact Factor