Glutamine-enriched enteral nutrition in very low-birth-weight infants: effect on the incidence of allergic and infectious diseases in the first year of life.
ABSTRACT To determine the effect of glutamine-enriched enteral nutrition in very low-birth-weight infants on the incidence of allergic and infectious diseases during the first year of life.
Tertiary care hospital.
All surviving infants who participated in a trial of glutamine-enriched enteral nutrition in very low-birth-weight infants.
Enteral glutamine supplementation (l-glutamine, 0.3 g/kg per day) from 3 through 30 days of life.
The incidence of allergic and infectious diseases during the first year of life, as assessed by means of validated questionnaires.
Seventy-seven of 90 infants (86%) participated in the follow-up study. Baseline patient, maternal, and environmental characteristics did not differ between the glutamine-supplemented (n = 37) and control (n = 40) groups, except for the incidence of serious neonatal infections and child care attendance. After adjustment for confounding factors, the risk for atopic dermatitis was lower in the glutamine-supplemented group (odds ratio [OR], 0.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.02-0.97). However, the incidence of bronchial hyperreactivity (OR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.10-1.21) and infections of the upper respiratory (OR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.35-2.79), lower respiratory (OR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.13-1.24), and gastrointestinal (OR 1.25, 95% CI 0.23-6.86) tracts was not different between the treatment groups.
Glutamine-enriched enteral nutrition in very low-birth-weight infants decreased the incidence of atopic dermatitis during the first year of life but had no effect on the incidence of bronchial hyperreactivity and infectious diseases during the first year of life.
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ABSTRACT: Prevention of serious infections in preterm infants is a challenge, since prematurity and low birth weight often requires many interventions and high utility of devices. Furthermore, the possibility to administer enteral nutrition is limited due to immaturity of the gastrointestinal tract in the presence of a developing immune system. In combination with delayed intestinal bacterial colonisation compared with term infants, this may increase the risk for serious infections. Acidic and neutral oligosaccharides play an important role in the development of the immune system, intestinal bacterial colonisation and functional integrity of the gut. This trial aims to determine the effect of enteral supplementation of acidic and neutral oligosaccharides on infectious morbidity (primary outcome), immune response to immunizations, feeding tolerance and short-term and long-term outcome in preterm infants. In addition, an attempt is made to elucidate the role of acidic and neutral oligosaccharides in postnatal modulation of the immune response and postnatal adaptation of the gut. In a double-blind placebo controlled randomised trial, 120 preterm infants (gestational age <32 weeks and/or birth weight <1500 gram) are randomly allocated to receive enteral acidic and neutral oligosaccharides supplementation (20%/80%) or placebo supplementation (maltodextrin) between day 3 and 30 of life. Primary outcome is infectious morbidity (defined as the incidence of serious infections). The role of acidic and neutral oligosaccharides in modulation of the immune response is investigated by determining the immune response to DTaP-IPV-Hib(-HBV)+PCV7 immunizations, plasma cytokine concentrations, faecal Calprotectin and IL-8. The effect of enteral acidic and neutral oligosaccharides supplementation on postnatal adaptation of the gut is investigated by measuring feeding tolerance, intestinal permeability, intestinal viscosity, and determining intestinal microflora. Furthermore, short-term and long-term outcome are evaluated. Especially preterm infants, who are at increased risk for serious infections, may benefit from supplementation of prebiotics. Most studies with prebiotics only focus on the colonisation of the intestinal microflora. However, the pathways how prebiotics may influence the immune system are not yet fully understood. Studying the immune modulatory effects is complex because of the multicausal risk of infections in preterm infants. The combination of neutral oligosaccharides with acidic oligosaccharides may have an increased beneficial effect on the immune system. Increased insight in the effects of prebiotics on the developing immune system may help to decrease the (infectious) morbidity and mortality in preterm infants. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN16211826.BMC Pediatrics 10/2008; 8:46. DOI:10.1186/1471-2431-8-46 · 1.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In a previous study, we found that glutamine-enriched enteral nutrition in 102 very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants decreased both the incidence of serious neonatal infections and atopic dermatitis during the first year of life. The aims of this follow-up study were to determine whether these beneficial effects are attended by changes in Th(1) and Th(2) cytokine profiles at age 1 yr. Furthermore, we studied changes in cytokine profiles during the first year of life in these VLBW infants. In total, 89 infants were eligible for the follow-up study (12 died, 1 exclusion due to a chromosomal abnormality). Th(1) (IFN-gamma, TNF- alpha and IL-2) and Th(2) cytokine (IL-10, IL-5, and IL-4) profiles following in vitro whole blood stimulation were measured at 1 yr. Cytokine profiles were measured in 59/89 (66%) infants. Glutamine-enriched enteral nutrition in neonatal period did not influence cytokine profiles at 1 yr. Cytokine profiles were not different in infants with and without allergic or infectious diseases. The beneficial effect of glutamine-enriched enteral nutrition on the incidence of serious neonatal infections and atopic dermatitis during the first year of life is not related to changes in the Th(1) and Th(2) cytokine profiles. Both Th(1) and Th(2) cytokine profiles increased during the first year of life in this cohort of VLBW infants.Pediatric Allergy and Immunology 10/2008; 20(5):467-70. DOI:10.1111/j.1399-3038.2008.00813.x · 3.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To identify associations between reactive airway disease (RAD), eczema, and gastroesophageal reflux (GERD) and antenatal/neonatal variables. This is a retrospective observational cohort analysis of former preterm (PT) infants evaluated at the Regional Neonatal Follow-up Program in the Lower Hudson Valley Region of New York. Subjects <2 years evaluated between January 2005 and December 2007 were included. Patient demographics, antenatal factors and co-morbidities of prematurity were correlated with each medical condition. A total of 727 subjects were analyzed: 12.8% had RAD, 10.5% had eczema; and 26.7% had GERD. RAD and GERD correlated inversely with gestational age. RAD was more prevalent in singletons and African Americans; GERD in Caucasians; and eczema in singletons and males. Respiratory disease in the newborn period increased the incidence of RAD and GERD. Toddlers who had RAD were likely to have eczema or GERD; no association between GERD and eczema existed. These three medical conditions were strongly associated. Their association may be the result of a common element developing each condition, or due to one condition exacerbating another. Respiratory problems in the newborn were strong predictors of GERD and RAD.Journal of Perinatal Medicine 01/2009; 37(2):103-8. DOI:10.1515/JPM.2009.033 · 1.43 Impact Factor