Glutamine-enriched enteral nutrition in very low-birth-weight infants: effect on the incidence of allergic and infectious diseases in the first year of life.
ABSTRACT To determine the effect of glutamine-enriched enteral nutrition in very low-birth-weight infants on the incidence of allergic and infectious diseases during the first year of life.
Tertiary care hospital.
All surviving infants who participated in a trial of glutamine-enriched enteral nutrition in very low-birth-weight infants.
Enteral glutamine supplementation (l-glutamine, 0.3 g/kg per day) from 3 through 30 days of life.
The incidence of allergic and infectious diseases during the first year of life, as assessed by means of validated questionnaires.
Seventy-seven of 90 infants (86%) participated in the follow-up study. Baseline patient, maternal, and environmental characteristics did not differ between the glutamine-supplemented (n = 37) and control (n = 40) groups, except for the incidence of serious neonatal infections and child care attendance. After adjustment for confounding factors, the risk for atopic dermatitis was lower in the glutamine-supplemented group (odds ratio [OR], 0.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.02-0.97). However, the incidence of bronchial hyperreactivity (OR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.10-1.21) and infections of the upper respiratory (OR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.35-2.79), lower respiratory (OR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.13-1.24), and gastrointestinal (OR 1.25, 95% CI 0.23-6.86) tracts was not different between the treatment groups.
Glutamine-enriched enteral nutrition in very low-birth-weight infants decreased the incidence of atopic dermatitis during the first year of life but had no effect on the incidence of bronchial hyperreactivity and infectious diseases during the first year of life.
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ABSTRACT: Prebiotics (commonly oligosaccharides) added to infant feeds have the potential to prevent sensitisation of infants to dietary allergens. To determine the effect of prebiotic given to infants for the prevention of allergy. We performed an updated search in August 2012 of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 8), MEDLINE, EMBASE, conference proceedings, citations, expert informants and clinical trials registries. Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials that compared the use of a prebiotic to no prebiotic, or a specific prebiotic compared to a different prebiotic in infants for prevention of allergy. Assessment of trial quality, data extraction and synthesis of data were performed using the standard methods of The Cochrane Collaboration. The 2012 update identified 13 studies classified as ongoing or awaiting classification (yet to report allergy outcomes). Forty-three studies were excluded, primarily as no allergy data were reported, although none of these enrolled infants were at high risk of allergy. Four studies enrolling 1428 infants were eligible for inclusion. All studies were at high risk of attrition bias. Allergy outcomes were reported from four months to two years of age.Meta-analysis of two studies (226 infants) found no significant difference in infant asthma although significant heterogeneity was found between studies. Meta-analysis of four studies found a significant reduction in eczema (1218 infants, typical risk ratio 0.68, 95% CI 0.48 to 0.97; typical risk difference -0.04, 95% CI -0.07 to -0.00; number needed to treat to benefit (NNTB) 25, 95% CI 14 to > 100; P = 0.03). No statistically significant heterogeneity was found between studies. One study reported no significant difference in urticaria.No statistically significant subgroup differences were found according to infant risk of allergy or type of infant feed. However, individual studies reported a significant reduction in asthma and eczema from supplementation with a mixture of galacto- and fructo-oligosaccharide (GOS/FOS 9:1 ratio) (8 g/L) in infants at high risk of allergy; and in eczema from supplementation with GOS/FOS (9:1) (6.8 g/L) and acidic oligosacccharide (1.2 g/L) in infants not selected for allergy risk. Further research is needed before routine use of prebiotics can be recommended for prevention of allergy in formula fed infants. There is some evidence that a prebiotic supplement added to infant feeds may prevent eczema. It is unclear whether the use of prebiotic should be restricted to infants at high risk of allergy or may have an effect in low risk populations; or whether it may have an effect on other allergic diseases including asthma.Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) 01/2013; 3:CD006474. · 5.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Glutamine may have benefits during immaturity or critical illness in early life but its effects on outcome end hardpoints are controversial. Our aim was to review randomized studies on glutamine supplementation in pups, infants, and children examining whether glutamine affects outcome. Experimental work has proposed various mechanisms of glutamine action but none of the randomized studies in early life showed any effect on mortality and only a few showed some effect on inflammatory response, organ function, and a trend for infection control. Although apparently safe in animal models (pups), premature infants, and critically ill children, glutamine supplementation does not reduce mortality or late onset sepsis, and its routine use cannot be recommended in these sensitive populations. Large prospectively stratified trials are needed to better define the crucial interrelations of "glutamine-heat shock proteins-stress response" in critical illness and to identify the specific subgroups of premature neonates and critically ill infants or children who may have a greater need for glutamine and who may eventually benefit from its supplementation. The methodological problems noted in the reviewed randomized experimental and clinical trials should be seriously considered in any future well-designed large blinded randomized controlled trial involving glutamine supplementation in critical illness.Clinical and Developmental Immunology 01/2012; 2012:749189. · 2.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Short-term supplementation of non-human neutral and acidic oligosaccharides during the first postnatal weeks may enhance the maturation of the immune response in preterm infants and may lead to less allergic and infectious diseases during the first year of life. In a randomized controlled trial, 113 preterm infants (gestational age <32 weeks and/or birth weight <1500 g) were allocated to receive enteral neutral and acidic oligosaccharide supplementation or placebo between days 3 and 30 of life. The median age at follow-up was not different in both groups: 12 months corrected age (interquartile range [IQR], 11-15) in the prebiotic mixture group and 12 months corrected age in the placebo group (IQR, 10-19), respectively. In addition, baseline patient, maternal, and environmental characteristics were not different between the prebiotic mixture (n = 48) and placebo (n = 46) group. Incidence of allergic and infectious diseases was assessed by validated questionnaires. In total, 94/98 (96 %) of the eligible, surviving infants participated in this follow-up study. The incidence of atopic dermatitis (odds ratio [OR], 0.80; 95 % confidence interval [CI], 0.24-2.67), bronchial hyper-reactivity (OR, 1.04; 95 % CI, 0.38-2.87) and infections of the upper respiratory (OR, 0.95; 95 % CI, 0.37-2.44), lower respiratory (OR, 1.03; 95 % CI, 0.37-2.88), and gastrointestinal (OR, 1.77; 95 % CI, 0.55-5.73) tract was not different between the groups. Adjustment for potential confounding factors did not change the results of the primary analysis. Conclusion: Short-term enteral supplementation of non-human neutral and acidic oligosaccharides during the neonatal period in preterm infants does not decrease the incidence of allergic and infectious diseases during the first year of life.European Journal of Pediatrics 11/2012; 172(3). · 1.98 Impact Factor