Platelet-mediated clumping of Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes is associated with high parasitemia but not severe clinical manifestations of malaria in African children.
ABSTRACT Platelet-mediated clumping of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes is an adhesive phenotype commonly found in field isolates that has previously been associated with severe malaria. Here, clumping was assessed in 131 isolates from Malian children. The clumping phenotype was seen in 6% (N = 51) of uncomplicated malaria, 24% (N = 51) of severe malaria, and 45% (N = 29) of high parasitemia non-severe malaria isolates. Multivariate analysis indicated that clumping was strongly positively associated with parasitemia (F(1,122) = 24.1, P < 0.001) but not with disease category (F(2,122) = 1.8, P = 0.17). Therefore platelet-mediated clumping in Malian P. falciparum isolates is primarily associated with high parasitemia and not with severe clinical manifestations of malaria.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Ogobara K Doumbo, Jul 04, 2015
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ABSTRACT: Platelet-mediated clumping of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes (IE) is a parasite adhesion phenotype that has been associated with severe malaria in some, but not all, field isolate studies. A variety of experimental conditions have been used to study clumping in vitro, with substantial differences in parasitaemia (Pt), haematocrit (Ht), and time of reaction between studies. It is unknown whether these experimental variables affect the outcome of parasite clumping assays. The effects of Pt (1, 4 and 12%), Ht (2, 5 and 10%) and time (15 min, 30 min, 1 h, 2 h) on the clumping of P. falciparum clone HB3 were examined. The effects of platelet freshness and parasite maturity were also studied. At low Ht (2%), the Pt of the culture has a large effect on clumping, with significantly higher clumping occurring at 12% Pt (mean 47% of IE in clumps) compared to 4% Pt (mean 26% IE in clumps) or 1% Pt (mean 7% IE in clumps) (ANOVA, p=0.0004). Similarly, at low Pt (1%), the Ht of the culture has a large effect on clumping, with significantly higher clumping occurring at 10% Ht (mean 62% IE in clumps) compared to 5% Ht (mean 25% IE in clumps) or 2% Ht (mean 10% IE in clumps) (ANOVA, p=0.0004). Combinations of high Ht and high Pt were impractical because of the difficulty assessing clumping in densely packed IE and the rapid formation of enormous clumps that could not be counted accurately. There was no significant difference in clumping when fresh platelets were used compared to platelets stored at 4 degrees C for 10 days. Clumping was a property of mature pigmented-trophozoites and schizonts but not ring stage parasites. The Pt and Ht at which in vitro clumping assays are set up have a profound effect on the outcome. All previous field isolate studies on clumping and malaria severity suffer from potential problems in experimental design and methodology. Future studies of clumping should use standardized conditions and control for Pt, and should take into account the limitations and variability inherent in the assay.Malaria Journal 12/2008; 7:243. DOI:10.1186/1475-2875-7-243 · 3.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The capacity of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells to bind uninfected red blood cells ("rosetting") has been associated with high parasite density in numerous geographic areas and with severe malaria in African children. We summarize here the associations that have emerged from field studies and describe the various experimental models of rosetting that have been developed. A variety of erythrocyte receptors, several serum factors and a number of rosette-mediating PfEMP1 adhesins have been identified. Several var genes code for rosette-forming PfEMP1 adhesins in each P. falciparum genome, so that each clonal line has the capacity to generate distinct types of rosettes. To clarify their respective role in malaria pathogenesis, each of the multiple ligand/receptor interactions should be further studied for fine specificity, binding affinity and the impact of the large population polymorphism of the parasite variant repertoires should be assessed. Interestingly, some major human erythrocyte surface polymorphisms have been identified as affecting rosette formation, consistent with a role for rosetting in life-threatening falciparum malaria.Transfusion Clinique et Biologique 02/2008; 15(1-2):62-71. DOI:10.1016/j.tracli.2008.04.003 · 0.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In the Saimiri sciureus monkey, erythrocytes infected with the varO antigenic variant of the Plasmodium falciparum Palo Alto 89F5 clone bind uninfected red blood cells (rosetting), form autoagglutinates, and have a high multiplication rate, three phenotypic characteristics that are associated with severe malaria in human patients. We report here that varO parasites express a var gene having the characteristics of group A var genes, and we show that the varO Duffy binding-like 1alpha(1) (DBL1alpha(1)) domain is implicated in the rosetting of both S. sciureus and human erythrocytes. The soluble varO N-terminal sequence (NTS)-DBL1alpha(1) recombinant domain, produced in a baculovirus-insect cell system, induced high titers of antibodies that reacted with varO-infected red blood cells and disrupted varO rosettes. varO parasites were culture adapted in vitro using human erythrocytes. They formed rosettes and autoagglutinates, and they had the same surface serotype and expressed the same varO gene as the monkey-propagated parasites. To develop an in vitro model with highly homogeneous varO parasites, rosette purification was combined with positive selection by panning with a varO NTS-DBL1alpha(1)-specific mouse monoclonal antibody. The single-variant, clonal parasites were used to analyze seroprevalence for varO at the village level in a setting where malaria is holoendemic (Dielmo, Senegal). We found 93.6% (95% confidence interval, 89.7 to 96.4%) seroprevalence for varO surface-reacting antibodies and 86.7% (95% confidence interval, 82.8 to 91.6%) seroprevalence for the recombinant NTS-DBL1alpha(1) domain, and virtually all permanent residents had seroconverted by the age of 5 years. These data imply that the varO model is a relevant in vivo and in vitro model for rosetting and autoagglutination that can be used for rational development of vaccine candidates and therapeutic strategies aimed at preventing malaria pathology.Infection and immunity 10/2008; 76(12):5565-80. DOI:10.1128/IAI.00901-08 · 4.16 Impact Factor