Abnormal cerebral cortex structure in children with ADHD. Human Brain mapping, 30, 175-184

Kennedy Krieger Institute, 707 North Broadway, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA.
Human Brain Mapping (Impact Factor: 5.97). 01/2009; 30(1):175-84. DOI: 10.1002/hbm.20496
Source: PubMed


Examination of cerebral cortical structure in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has thus far been principally limited to volume measures. In the current study, an automated surface-based analysis technique was used to examine the ADHD-associated differences in additional morphologic features of cerebral cortical gray matter structure, including surface area, thickness, and cortical folding.
MPRAGE images were acquired from 21 children with ADHD (9 girls) and 35 typically developing controls (15 girls), aged 8-12 years. Statistical difference maps were used to compare mean cortical thickness between groups along the cortical surface. Cortical volume, surface area, mean thickness, and cortical folding were measured within regions of interest, including the right/left hemispheres, frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes within each hemisphere, and sub-lobar regions.
Children with ADHD showed a decrease in total cerebral volume and total cortical volume of over 7 and 8%, respectively; volume reduction was observed throughout the cortex, with significant reduction in all four lobes bilaterally. The ADHD group also showed a decrease in surface area of over 7% bilaterally, and a significant decrease in cortical folding bilaterally. No significant differences in cortical thickness were detected.
Results from the present study reveal that ADHD is associated with decreased cortical volume, surface area, and folding throughout the cerebral cortex. The findings suggest that decreased cortical folding is a key morphologic feature associated with ADHD. This would be consistent with onset early in neural development and could help to identify neurodevelopmental mechanisms that contribute to ADHD.

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Available from: Sasha M Wolosin, Dec 17, 2013
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    • "Indeed, this pattern of behavioral findings, in concert with evidence from neuroimaging studies, suggests that ADHD in boys may be associated with neural dysfunction in both premotor (PM) and prefrontal (PF) systems; whereas in girls with ADHD, abnormalities may be more localized to PF circuits . Anatomic neuroimaging studies of ADHD, which include predominantly male samples, reveal structural abnormalities spanning both PM and PF circuits (Mostofsky et al. 2002; Shaw et al. 2006; Wolosin et al. 2009). Further, functional neuroimaging studies of response control highlight the critical role of PM motor regions, particularly the supplementary motor complex (SMC) under conditions in which cognitive demands are minimal (e.g., simple GNG) (Mostofsky et al. 2003; Simmonds et al. 2008). "
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    ABSTRACT: Children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) consistently show impaired response control, including deficits in response inhibition and increased intrasubject variability (ISV) compared to typically-developing (TD) children. However, significantly less research has examined factors that may influence response control in individuals with ADHD, such as task or participant characteristics. The current study extends the literature by examining the impact of increasing cognitive demands on response control in a large sample of 81children with ADHD (40 girls) and 100 TD children (47 girls), ages 8-12 years. Participants completed a simple Go/No-Go (GNG) task with minimal cognitive demands, and a complex GNG task with increased cognitive load. Results showed that increasing cognitive load differentially impacted response control (commission error rate and tau, an ex-Gaussian measure of ISV) for girls, but not boys, with ADHD compared to same-sex TD children. Specifically, a sexually dimorphic pattern emerged such that boys with ADHD demonstrated higher commission error rate and tau on both the simple and complex GNG tasks as compared to TD boys, whereas girls with ADHD did not differ from TD girls on the simple GNG task, but showed higher commission error rate and tau on the complex GNG task. These findings suggest that task complexity influences response control in children with ADHD in a sexually dimorphic manner. The findings have substantive implications for the pathophysiology of ADHD in boys versus girls with ADHD.
    Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 01/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10802-015-9976-z · 3.48 Impact Factor
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    • "The most consistent findings in VCFS are decreased gyrification in the frontal and parietal lobes (Schaer et al., 2006; Kunwar et al., 2012; Srivastava et al., 2012) and decreased gyrification in occipital and midline regions of the brain (Srivastava et al., 2012). Findings in studies of ADHD show either a global decrease in cortical folding (Wolosin et al., 2009) or no abnormalities (Shaw et al., 2012). The mixed findings could be attributed to different methodological approaches, as different techniques were applied to measure gyrification. "
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    ABSTRACT: We used magnetic resonance imaging to investigate brain gyrification patterns between 19 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 9 children with velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS), and 23 control children. We found that VCFS is associated with widespread decreases in gyrification. In ADHD, we found minor differences from control children. No evidence was found for common gyrification patterns between VCFS and ADHD children.
    12/2013; 221(2). DOI:10.1016/j.pscychresns.2013.12.002
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    • "The combination of ADHD inattentive subtype with cognitive impairments is frequently found in VLBW/VP children and indicates a neurodevelopmental pathway over and above social factors in explaining subsequent academic underachievement. Accordingly, as shown here, full-term children with ADHD inattentive subtype and low cognitive abilities are also at increased risk for poor academic achievement and may show similar alterations in cortical development that are characteristic of preterm children (Wolosin et al. 2009 ; Proal et al. 2011). However, the prevalence of cognitive and attention problems is lower in full-term children. "

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