Nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in household contacts of children with community-acquired diseases in Taiwan.
ABSTRACT Nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was detected in 18 (32%) of 57 children with community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus infection and 30 (25%) of 121 household contacts. By genotyping comparison, 94% and 64% of the colonization isolates from the patients and the contacts, respectively, were indistinguishable from the clinical isolates.
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ABSTRACT: Health care workers (HCWs) are at the interface between hospitals and communities. The survey for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage among HCWs has mostly been conducted to investigate outbreaks or endemics. Community-associated MRSA are prevalent among children in Taiwan. We conducted this study to better understand the carriage rate of MRSA among pediatricians in non-outbreak situations in Taiwan,. A total of 220 pediatricians from Taiwan who attended the annual meeting of Taiwan Pediatric Association in April, 2010 were recruited to participate in this study and were sampled from the nares for the detection of MRSA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and further by culture. The following molecular analyses were performed, including pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), typing of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) and the presence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes. MRSA was detected from 15 attendees (6.8%) by PCR. MRSA-colonized attendees had a significantly lower rate (0.041) of working in the medical center, while borderline significantly higher rate of working in the Regional Hospital (p=0.056), than those without MRSA colonization. From those 15 samples, 12 MRSA isolates were identified by culture and molecularly characterized. Three PFGE patterns, two sequence types (ST 59, ST 508), and two SCCmec types (IV and VT) were identified, respectively. Five isolates, including three carrying SCCmec types VT, were PVL-positive. All 12 isolates were susceptible to vancomycin, teicoplanin, linezolid, fusidic acid, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and doxycyclin, and resistant to penicillin. Around seven percent of pediatricians in Taiwan harbored CA-MRSA in their nares.PLoS ONE 11/2013; 8(11):e82472. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0082472 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has emerged as a community strain in the past decade. From October 2012 to March 2013, a total of 947 school children from eightprimary schools in the three districts of east Malaysia, ages between 7 years to 12 years, were screened for nasal carriage of MRSA. The overall prevalence of nares carriage of MRSA and Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) were 3.4 % and 39% respectively. The carriage rate of MRSA was higher for children living in rural area (4.1%) than in the urban area (2.3%),aged 7-9 years (4.3%) than aged 10-12 years (2.7%) and Bajau ethnicity (4.!%) than other ethnicity. All 397 isolates were susceptible to vancomycin, ciprofloxacin, and gentamicin .MRSA isolates also showed susceptibility to rifampicin and cefuroxime. Of the 17 MRSA isolates available for molecular analysis, three clones with one major clone were identified and included sequence type (ST) 30-Staphylococcal chromosomal cassette (SCCmec) IV-Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes-positive for 10 isolates, ST239-SCCmec III-PVL-negative-spa type t037 for 2 isolates and ST45-SCCmec IV-PVL-negative-t1081 for 5 isolates. Our study is population based and different from hospital based studies School children were screened from eight schools; therefore the prevalence of MRSA in the children may not reflect the entire population of Sabah, but MRSA nasal carriage may spread in the community. Future researchers have to determine several factors of nasal colonization and the efforts must be made to detect and prevent the spread of MRSA in the population
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ABSTRACT: SUMMARY Diverse strain types of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) cause infections in community settings worldwide. To examine heterogeneity of spread within households and to identify common risk factors for household transmission across settings, primary data from studies conducted in New York (USA), Breda (The Netherlands), and Melbourne (Australia) were pooled. Following MRSA infection of the index patient, household members completed questionnaires and provided nasal swabs. Swabs positive for S. aureus were genotyped by spa sequencing. Poisson regression with robust error variance was used to estimate prevalence odds ratios for transmission of the clinical isolate to non-index household members. Great diversity of strain types existed across studies. Despite differences between studies, the index patient being colonized with the clinical isolate at the home visit (P < 0·01) and the percent of household members aged <18 years (P < 0·01) were independently associated with transmission. Targeted decolonization strategies could be used across geographical settings to limit household MRSA transmission.Epidemiology and Infection 04/2014; 143(02):1-12. DOI:10.1017/S0950268814000983 · 2.49 Impact Factor