Postoperative course in the cardiac intensive care unit following the first stage of Norwood reconstruction
ABSTRACT The medical records of all patients born between 1 September, 2000, and 31 August, 2002, and undergoing the first stage of Norwood reconstruction, were retrospectively reviewed for details of the perioperative course. We found 99 consecutive patients who met the criterions for inclusion. Hospital mortality for the entire cohort was 15.2%, but was 7.3%, with 4 of 55 dying, in the setting of a "standard" risk profile, as opposed to 25.0% for those with a "high" risk profile, 11 of 44 patients dying in this group. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was utilized in 7 patients, with 6 deaths. Median postoperative length of stay in the hospital was 14 days, with a range from 2 to 85 days, and stay in the cardiac intensive care unit was 11 days, with a range from 2 to 85 days. Delayed sternal closure was performed in 18.2%, with a median of 1 day until closure, with a range from zero to 5 days. Excluding isolated delayed sternal closure, and cannulation and decannulation for extracorporeal support, 24 patients underwent 33 cardiothoracic reoperations, including exploration for bleeding in 12, diaphragmatic plication in 4; shunt revision in 4, and other procedures in 13. The median duration of total mechanical ventilation was 4.0 days, with a range from 0.7 to 80.5 days. Excluding those who died, the median total duration of mechanical ventilation was 3.8 days, with a range from 0.9 to 46.3 days. Reintubation for cardiorespiratory failure or upper airway obstruction was performed in 31 patients. Postoperative electroencephalographic and/or clinical seizures occurred in 13 patients, with 7 discharged on anti-convulsant medications. Postoperative renal failure, defined as a level of creatinine greater than 1.5 mg/dl, was present in 13 patients. Eleven had significant thrombocytopenia, with fewer than 20,000 platelets per microl, and injury to the vocal cords was identified in eight patients. Risk factors for longer length of stay included lower Apgar scores, preoperative intubation, early reoperations, reintubation and sepsis, but not weight at birth, genetic syndromes, the specific surgeon, or the duration of surgery. Although mortality rates after the first stage of reconstruction continue to fall, the course in the intensive care unit is remarkable for significant morbidity, especially involving the cardiac, pulmonary and central nervous systems. These patients utilize significant resources during the first hospitalization. Further studies are necessary to stratify the risks faced by patients with hypoplasia of the left heart in whom the first stage of Norwood reconstruction is planned, to determine methods to reduce perioperative morbidity, and to determine the long-term implications of short-term complications, such as diaphragmatic paresis, injury to the vocal cords, prolonged mechanical ventilation, and postoperative seizures.
SourceAvailable from: Glen J Iannucci[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Many cardiac ICUs have instituted 24/7 attending physician in-house coverage, which theoretically may allow for more expeditious weaning from ventilation and extubation. We aimed to determine whether this staffing strategy impacts rates of nighttime extubation and duration of mechanical ventilation. National data were obtained from the Virtual PICU System database for all patients admitted to the cardiac ICU following congenital heart surgery in 2011 who required postoperative mechanical ventilation. Contemporaneous data from our local institution were collected in addition to the Virtual PICU System data. The combined dataset (n = 2,429) was divided based on the type of nighttime staffing model in order to compare rates of nighttime extubation and duration of mechanical ventilation between units that used an in-house attending staffing strategy and those that employed nighttime residents, fellows, or midlevel providers only. Institutions that currently use 24/7 in-house attending coverage did not demonstrate statistically significant differences in rates of nighttime extubation or the duration of mechanical ventilation in comparison to units without in-house attendings. Younger patients cared for in non-in-house attending units were more likely to require reintubation. Pediatric patients who have undergone congenital heart surgery can be safely and effectively extubated without the routine presence of an attending physician. The utilization of nighttime in-house attending coverage does not appear to have significant benefits on the rate of nighttime extubation and may not reduce the duration of mechanical ventilation in units that already use in-house residents, fellows, or other midlevel providers.Pediatric Critical Care Medicine 01/2014; 15(3). DOI:10.1097/PCC.0000000000000068 · 2.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Objective The hybrid stage I procedure is an alternative palliative strategy for patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome who traditionally have undergone the Norwood operation. At our institution, the hybrid stage I procedure is employed only for patients with high operative risk. Our objective was to describe our use of a pressure guidewire during the hybrid stage I procedure to assess quantitatively pulmonary artery band adequacy. DesignAfter reviewing the charts on all high-risk patients who underwent a hybrid stage I procedure at our institution, we compared two groups of patients: those who underwent the standard hybrid stage I palliation (standard cohort) and those with pressure wire-facilitated assessment of distal branch pulmonary artery pressure (pressure wire cohort) to evaluate the impact of pressure guidewire use on procedural risk, radiation time, patient outcomes, and need for reoperation for pulmonary artery band adjustment. ResultsThe pressure guidewire was used in 8 of 14 patients at the time of hybrid stage I procedure and was successful and without complication in all attempts. In the standard cohort, 67% of patients needed reoperation for pulmonary artery band adjustment, compared to 12.5% of patients in the pressure wire cohort (P =.09). Procedure time, radiation exposure, and survival to hospital discharge were not different between groups. Conclusions This novel use of a pressure guidewire to assess quantitatively pulmonary artery band adequacy at the time of placement is feasible, safe and may decrease the need for reoperation for pulmonary artery band adjustment.Congenital Heart Disease 03/2013; 8(2):149-59. DOI:10.1111/chd.12005 · 1.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Infants with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) are at risk for interstage morbidity and mortality, especially between the first and second surgical stages after the Norwood and hybrid procedures. This study compared the morbidity and mortality of patients treated by either the Norwood or the hybrid procedure for HLHS between the first and second stages who were undergoing interstage monitoring. Between October 2008 and December 2011, 26 infants (14 boys) with HLHS (n = 16) and other univentricular heart malformations with aortic arch anomaly (n = 10) were scheduled for interstage monitoring after Norwood I (n = 12) and hybrid (n = 14) procedures. Three infants (11.5 %) died after first-stage palliation (one hybrid patient and two Norwood patients), and three infants (11.5 %) died after second-stage palliation (two hybrid patients and one Norwood patient) (p = 0.83), all after early second-stage surgery (<90 days). The Norwood I and hybrid procedures did not differ in terms of overall mortality (23 %) (three hybrid and three Norwood patients; p = 1.00). Seven infants (26.9 %) could not be discharged from the hospital due to hemodynamic instability and were referred for early second-stage surgery (<90 days). After the first stage, the invasive reevaluation rate before discharge was high (53.8 %), with cardiac catheterizations for 8 of 14 patients after the hybrid procedure and for 6 of 12 patients after the Norwood procedure (p = 0.69). A total of 11 reinterventions were performed (eight by catheter and three by surgery). Of the eight catheter reinterventions, five were performed for hybrid patients (p = 0.22). For 14 infants, 89 days (range 10-177 days) of interstage monitoring were scheduled. One infant (3.9 %) died during the interstage monitoring. The findings showed a breach of the physiologic criteria for interstage monitoring in seven infants (50 %) after 10 days (range 4-68 days) (five hybrid and two Norwood patients), leading to rehospitalization and catheterization for six patients (four hybrid and two Norwood patients), requiring interventions for two patients (patent arterial duct stent dilation, and atrial septal defect stenting, all for hybrid patients). Overall, three of the seven patients with red flag events of interstage monitoring were candidates for early second-stage surgery. In conclusion, morbidity among infants treated for HLHS remains high, either before or after hospital discharge, emphasizing the need of interstage monitoring programs. Despite retrograde aortic flow in infants with HLHS after the hybrid procedure, the mortality rate was comparable between the two groups. Mortality occurs after early second-stage surgery (<90 days).Pediatric Cardiology 01/2014; DOI:10.1007/s00246-014-0865-y · 1.55 Impact Factor