Normalization of Diastolic Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetics after Exercise Training
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of aerobic exercise training on left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) and exercise capacity in subjects with type 2 diabetes.
Twenty-three sedentary subjects with well-controlled type 2 diabetes, free of coronary disease and having different degrees of LVDD, participated in the study. Subjects were treated with oral hypoglycemic agents and/or diet. Eleven subjects (EX) (age: 58 +/- 5 yr; mean +/- SD) underwent a 3-month aerobic exercise training program using a cycle ergometer, whereas a control group (CONT) of 12 subjects (57 +/- 6 yr) maintained their activities of daily living. Exercise capacity and LVDD, using echocardiography, were evaluated before and after the 3-month exercise program.
At baseline, anthropometric data were similar between the groups, except for body mass index (BMI), which was higher in CONT (31 +/- 3 vs 28+/- 3 kg x m(-2); P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in glycemic control (HbA1c: 6.4 +/- 1.2 vs 5.8 +/- 1.3%; P = 0.2) or maximal oxygen uptake (26.7 +/- 5.9 vs 28.6 +/- 3.9 mL x kg(-1) x min(-1); P = 0.4) between groups. Normalization of LVDD was observed in 5 of 11 EX subjects, (P < 0.0001) of whom four had grade 1 LVDD before exercise training. No change in diastolic function was observed in the CONT group. After exercise training, maximal oxygen uptake increased in the EX group (28.6 +/- 3.9 vs 32.7 +/- 5.7 mL x kg(-1) x min(-1); P < 0.05), whereas there was no change in the CONT group (26.7 +/- 5.9 vs 27.3 +/- 6.2 mL x kg(-1) x min(-1); P = 0.58). In both groups, there was no significant change in BMI.
Along with an improvement in exercise capacity, aerobic exercise training has the potential to reverse LVDD in patients with well-controlled, uncomplicated type 2 diabetes.
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ABSTRACT: Diastolic dysfunction is frequent in elderly subjects and in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy, vascular disease and diabetes mellitus. Patients with diastolic dysfunction demonstrate a reduced exercise capacity and might suffer from congestive heart failure (CHF). Presence of symptoms of CHF in the setting of a normal systolic function is referred to as heart failure with normal ejection fraction (HFNEF) or, if evidence of an impaired diastolic function is observed, as diastolic heart failure (DHF). Reduced exercise capacity in diastolic dysfunction results from a number of pathophysiological alterations such as slowed myocardial relaxation, reduced myocardial distensibility, elevated filling pressures, and reduced ventricular suction forces. These alterations limit the increase of ventricular diastolic filling and cardiac output during exercise and lead to pulmonary congestion. In healthy subjects, exercise training can enhance diastolic function and exercise capacity and prevent deterioration of diastolic function in the course of aging. In patients with diastolic dysfunction, exercise capacity can be enhanced by exercise training and pharmacological treatment, whereas improvement of diastolic function can only be observed in few patients.Heart Failure Reviews 09/2008; 14(2):125-34. DOI:10.1007/s10741-008-9105-y · 3.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Resting and exercise cardiac function, skeletal muscle oxygenation and whole-body aerobic exercise capacities were evaluated prospectively in cardiac symptom-free HIV men receiving antiretroviral therapies and in healthy controls matched for age, physical activity, smoking and body surface area. HIV patients showed resting cardiac dysfunction, altered cardiac responses to exercise and depressed exercise tolerance. Exercise stroke volume kinetics and muscle oxygenation were impaired in HIV patients, especially in those with resting diastolic dysfunction.AIDS (London, England) 12/2008; 22(18):2537-40. DOI:10.1097/QAD.0b013e328319806d · 5.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Limited information exists regarding the role of left ventricular function in predicting exercise capacity and impact on age- and sex-related differences. To determine the impact of measures of cardiac function assessed by echocardiography on exercise capacity and to determine if these associations are modified by sex or advancing age. Cross-sectional study of patients undergoing exercise echocardiography with routine measurements of left ventricular systolic and diastolic function by 2-dimensional and Doppler techniques. Analyses were conducted to determine the strongest correlates of exercise capacity and the age and sex interactions of these variables with exercise capacity. Large tertiary referral center in Rochester, Minnesota, in 2006. Patients undergoing exercise echocardiography using the Bruce protocol (N = 2867). Patients with echocardiographic evidence of exercise-induced ischemia, ejection fractions lower than 50%, or significant valvular heart disease were excluded. Exercise capacity in metabolic equivalents (METs). Diastolic dysfunction was strongly and inversely associated with exercise capacity. Compared with normal function, after multivariate adjustment, those with moderate/severe resting diastolic dysfunction (-1.30 METs; 95% confidence interval [CI], -1.52 to -0.99; P < .001) and mild resting diastolic dysfunction (-0.70 METs; 95% CI, -0.88 to -0.46; P < .001) had substantially lower exercise capacity. Variation of left ventricular systolic function within the normal range was not associated with exercise capacity. Left ventricular filling pressures measured by resting E/e' of 15 or greater (-0.41 METs; 95% CI, -0.70 to -0.11; P = .007) or postexercise E/e' of 15 or greater (-0.41 METs; 95% CI, -0.71 to -0.11; P = .007) were similarly associated with a reduction in exercise capacity, each in separate multivariate analyses. Individuals with impaired relaxation (mild dysfunction) or resting E/e' of 15 or greater had a progressive increase in the magnitude of reduction in exercise capacity with advancing age (P < .001 and P = .02, respectively). Other independent correlates of exercise capacity were age (unstandardized beta coefficient, -0.85 METs; 95% CI, -0.92 to -0.77, per 10-year increment; P < .001), female sex (-1.98 METs; 95% CI, -2.15 to -1.84; P < .001), and body mass index greater than 30 (-1.24 METs; 95% CI, -1.41 to -1.10; P < .001). In this large cross-sectional study of those referred for exercise echocardiography and not limited by ischemia, abnormalities of left ventricular diastolic function were independently associated with exercise capacity.JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 01/2009; 301(3):286-94. DOI:10.1001/jama.2008.1022 · 35.29 Impact Factor