We report a rare case of primary small cell carcinoma of the breast. A 44-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a mass in her left breast. Fine-needle biopsy revealed small cell carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation resembling small cell carcinoma of the lung. Systemic computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed no primary site in the lung or any other organ. A modified radical mastectomy with removal of the axillary lymph node (Bt + Ax, R2) was performed. Histological examination revealed that the tumor was composed of small round to oval cells with a large nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio. The tumor cells were positive for neuroendocrine differentiation markers such as synaptophysin, CD56, and neuron-specific enolase (NSE), but negative for thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1), leukocyte common antigen (LCA), estrogen receptor (ER), and progesterone receptor (PR). Interestingly, the tumor cells lacked immunoreactivity for epithelial markers, including cytokeratin AE1/3, CAM5.2, and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA). The patient was given adjuvant chemotherapy for axillary lymph node metastasis. There were no signs of recurrence 22 months after surgery.
"Mammographically, this condition has been reported as a dense, lobulated mass with a partially ill-defined margin (4, 10, 11, 13). Calcification and a spiculated border are also other documented mammographic findings (8, 11). Mammography was not performed in this case because of the patient’s young age and the high reliability of ultrasound in characterizing and detecting both solid and cystic components (4). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast is a very rare malignant tumor. There are not many cases reported in the English literature since it was first documented in 1983. Reports on the imaging features, in particular the ultrasonographic features of this rare tumor are scarce. Herein, we report a case of aggressive primary infiltrating neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast, masquerading as an inflammatory breast condition in a 22-year-old young lady, perhaps the youngest case ever reported in the English literature. We discuss the imaging features and highlight the Doppler ultrasonographic findings of this rare breast carcinoma. This is the first documentation on Doppler ultrasonographic findings of primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast in the literature.
"Moreover, ENO2 is a glycolysis-related gene that has been described to play an important role in tumorogenesis of colorectal cancers . Indeed, ENO2 is upregulated in a variety of cancers [26-28] and alpha-enolase is significantly upregulated in a metastasic colon cancer cell line, suggesting a possible association with the metastasic process in vitro and in vivo . Indeed, we observed a notable contribution of ENO2 to MTX resistance when treating the sensitive cells with siENO2. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Methotrexate is one of the earliest cytotoxic drugs used in cancer therapy, and despite the isolation of multiple other folate antagonists, methotrexate maintains its significant role as a treatment for different types of cancer and other disorders. The usefulness of treatment with methotrexate is limited by the development of drug resistance, which may be acquired through different ways. To get insights into the mechanisms associated with drug resistance and sensitization we performed a functional analysis of genes deregulated in methotrexate resistant cells, either due to its co-amplification with the dhfr gene or as a result of a transcriptome screening using microarrays.
Gene expression levels were compared between triplicate samples from either HT29 sensitive cells and resistant to 10-5 M MTX by hybridization to the GeneChip(R) HG U133 PLUS 2.0 from Affymetrix. After normalization, a list of 3-fold differentially expressed genes with a p-value < 0.05 including multiple testing correction (Benjamini and Hochberg false discovery rate) was generated. RT-Real-time PCR was used to validate the expression levels of selected genes and copy-number was determined by qPCR. Functional validations were performed either by siRNAs or by transfection of an expression plasmid.
Genes adjacent to the dhfr locus and included in the 5q14 amplicon were overexpressed in HT29 MTX-resistant cells. Treatment with siRNAs against those genes caused a slight reduction in cell viability in both HT29 sensitive and resistant cells. On the other hand, microarray analysis of HT29 and HT29 MTX resistant cells unveiled overexpression of caveolin 1, enolase 2 and PKCalpha genes in resistant cells without concomitant copy number gain. siRNAs against these three genes effectively reduced cell viability and caused a decreased MTX resistance capacity. Moreover, overexpression of E-cadherin, which was found underexpressed in MTX-resistant cells, also sensitized the cells toward the chemotherapeutic agent. Combined treatments targeting siRNA inhibition of caveolin 1 and overexpression of E-cadherin markedly reduced cell viability in both sensitive and MTX-resistant HT29 cells.
We provide functional evidences indicating that caveolin 1 and E-cadherin, deregulated in MTX resistant cells, may play a critical role in cell survival and may constitute potential targets for coadjuvant therapy.
BMC Medical Genomics 08/2008; 1(1):35. DOI:10.1186/1755-8794-1-35 · 2.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to analyze the clinicopathological characteristics, treatment modalities, and clinical outcome of patients with primary small cell carcinoma of the breast.
Fifty-three cases of primary small cell carcinoma of the breast were identified; 7 cases in this series and 46 from the English-language medical literature.
There were 52 females and 1 male. The mean age was 53 years. Tumor size ranged from 1 to 18 cm (mean, 4.53). Axillary node metastasis was present in 61.7%. Only one patient had distant metastases at presentation. The presence of hormone receptors was reported in 24.5% of the tumors. Modified radical mastectomy was the most common surgical procedure and was performed in 50.9% of the patients. Adjuvant radiotherapy was administered to 39.6% of the patients, and 69.8% underwent chemotherapy. Thirteen percent of patients received adjuvant tamoxifen therapy. The mean follow-up was 20.75 months (range, 3-60), and 10 of 53 cases (18.9%) died of metastatic disease.
The prognosis of primary small cell carcinoma of the breast largely depends on the initial stage of the disease. Multimodality treatment including surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy seems to be the most appropriate strategy for early disease. Chemotherapy is usually unsuccessful in treating metastatic disease.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.