The Dyadic Nature of Bullying and Victimization: Testing a Dual‐Perspective Theory

Interuniversity Center for Social Science Theory and Methodology, University of Groningen, Grote Rozenstraat 31, 9712 TG Groningen, the Netherlands.
Child Development (Impact Factor: 4.72). 11/2007; 78(6):1843-54. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2007.01102.x
Source: PubMed


For this study, information on Who Bullies Who was collected from 54 school classes with 918 children (M age = 11) and 13,606 dyadic relations. Bullying and victimization were viewed separately from the point of view of the bully and the victim. The two perspectives were highly complementary. The probability of a bully-victim relationship was higher if the bully was more dominant than the victim, and if the victim was more vulnerable than the bully and more rejected by the class. In a bully-victim dyad, boys were more often the bullies. There was no finding of sex effect for victimization. Liking reduced and disliking increased the probability of a bully-victim relationship.

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Available from: Bonne J. H. Zijlstra,
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    • "For instance, self-reported victimization can be measured by enquiring the respondents if they have been bullied, whereas peer-reported victimization is assessed by asking the respondents to indicate who has been bullied by others (Graham, Bellmore, & Juvonen 2003). The resulting data provide information about bullying involvement from different angles, which can be analyzed in multiple ways: by presenting the views of informants separately (Peets & Kikas 2006; Rønning et al. 2009; Veenstra et al. 2007), by combining them into a single scale (Kumpulainen et al. 1998; Sourander et al. 2007), or by categorizing respondents based on who had reported their involvement (Graham et al. 2003). A commonality of these approaches is that they acknowledge the unique and complementary nature of the different perspectives on the behavior of a respondent (Achenbach 2006; Wienke Totura, Green, Karver, & Gesten 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: The present research adopts a multiple informant approach to identify victims and perpetrators of cyberbullying. Similar approaches have been successfully applied in the field of traditional bullying, and they are highly relevant for studying cyberbullying as well. Three informants can provide key perspectives on cyberbullying incidents: victims, perpetrators and bystanders. To collect data on these actors, all eighth-grade students in 11 secondary schools were invited to participate in a survey. In total 1,458 respondents completed peer-nomination questions on cyberbullying involvement. The results indicated that the prevalence of cyberbullying varied depending on the type of informants that was consulted. In addition, limited overlap was observed between the reports of different informants, resulting in different profiles of victims and perpetrators, depending on the informants that identified them. In sum, different informants tended to have divergent views on cyberbullying, which has important implications. It warrants accurate reporting and critical reflection on the sources of data in cyberbullying research. Moreover, it demonstrates the need to study a more diverse set of informants to advance the understanding of cyberbullying and to enhance prevention efforts.
    European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research 01/2016; (In press). DOI:10.1007/s10610-015-9287-5 · 0.53 Impact Factor
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    • "In the bullying literature, bullying has long been understood as a group-phenomenon determined not only by characteristics of bullies and victims but also by social relationships or roles within the group (Salmivalli, Lagerspetz, Björkqvist, Österman, & Kaukiainen, 1996). As empirical evidence shows, one important motive for bullying others is to gain social status, or to be accepted by peers (Olthof & Goossens, 2008; Salmivalli & Peets, 2008; Veenstra et al., 2007). Similarly, from an evolutionary-oriented perspective, social dominance was understood in terms of resource control and evidence shows that youth use both aggressive and affiliative behaviours to gain these resources (e.g., Hawley, 1999, Pellegrini, 2008). "

    • "In general, studies on negative relationships are rare, especially among educators, likely because of the difficulty of collecting empirical data to examine such relationships. In classroom research, a few studies investigating bully-victim relationships (e.g., Huitsing et al. 2012; Veenstra et al. 2007; Zijlstra et al. 2008) shed light on the social structure of such negative relationships. Recently, organizational research has started to examine negative relationships in the workplace. "

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