The Muslim population of the Chaltaberia village in the district of South 24 Parganas in West Bengal is divided into several wards (paras) inhabited by people of specific surnames. The frequency of endogamous marriages within surnames is greater than randomly expected ones. An incomplete reproductive isolation is observed among the five dominant surnames. Consanguineous marriages occur more often outside the village than inside. Leaving out marriages between long distances, a small median distance of 6.36 km is recorded. The neighborhood area works up to be 552.2 km2, which is rather small. There is an underlying process of breeding isolation by distance. A generation length of 21 years has been used for examining the temporal change in consanguineous marriages and inbreeding, which generally appears to increase. There is a general trend of decline in consanguineous marriages towards the southern part of West Bengal and eastern part of Assam among the Bengalee Muslims. The frequency of consanguineous marriages is 7.3% out of all marriages (N=1153) that have taken place in six generations in the population. The first cousin marriage is nearly 50% of all marriages. Patrilineal marriages are common in marriages between second and third cousins. An increase of consanguineous marriages in the younger generation was observed, but the total frequency agrees with a general trend of a decline in the frequency of consanguineous marriages among the Muslims in this part of India.
"The trend of change in age at first marriage will provide valuable feedback on efforts by the government to improve the social and health standards of the population, especially in developing countries like Bangladesh where health and clinically related reforms are being actively implemented. Many studies have reported changes in the age at first marriage in several populations over time (Andersson, 1998; Löfstedt et al., 2005; Mukherjee et al., 2007; Marston et al., 2009; Cremin et al., 2009; Chen, 2009; Copen et al., 2012). The purpose of this study was to determine the age of first marriage among Bangladeshi women, its trend of change over time and the prevalence of child marriage, and to investigate the association of these with various socio-demographic factors. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many Bangladeshi women marry early, and many marry before the legal age of 18 years. This practice has been associated with a higher risk of health and medical morbidities, and also early pregnancy with higher pre- and postnatal complications. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, and factors associated with, child marriage among Bangladeshi women using multiple binary logistic regression analysis of data from the BDHS-2011. Further analysis on the trend of age at first marriage was performed with additional data sets from previous surveys. The mean and median of ages at first marriage of Bangladeshi women in 2011 were 15.69±2.97 and 15.00 years, respectively. A remarkably high percentage (78.2%) married before the age of 18; of these, 5.5% married at a very early age (before 13 years of age). Binary logistic regression analysis demonstrated that uneducated women were more likely to be married early (
<0.001) than those with secondary and higher education. Child marriage was especially pronounced among women with uneducated husbands, Muslims, those with poor economic backgrounds and those living in rural areas. Further analysis including data from previous BDHS surveys showed that child marriage among Bangladeshi women had a decreasing trend from 1993–94 to 2011. These results show that child marriage was very common in Bangladesh, and closely associated with low level of education and low economic status. The decreasing trend in child marriage indicates an improvement over the past two decades but more effort is needed to further reduce and eventually eliminate the practice.
Journal of Biosocial Science 08/2015; DOI:10.1017/S0021932015000279 · 0.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Consanguinity is the blood relationship that exists among individuals that descend from a common ancestor. The objectives of the study was to explore the frequency and socio-economic determinants of consanguinity in Egypt. The study was carried out using a cross-sectional approach which included 10,000 unselected couples. All couples were recruited from the prenatal, gynecologic, neonatal and pediatric clinics as well as vaccination centers in three hospitals one in Lower Egypt (Cairo) and two in Upper Egypt (Sohag and Assuit).Consanguineous marriage is still high in Egypt (35.3%), especially among first cousins (86%). However the frequency varies by region. It is higher in Sohag (42.2%) and Cairo (36.1%) than in Assuit (21.7%). Also it was higher in rural areas (59.9%) than in semi-urban and urban areas (23.5% and 17.7%, respectively). It was associated with decreased age of marriage, low educational level and unemployment in the couples which means that the socio-economic determinants are still working in maintaining this high rate of consanguinity. This is in addition to the high divorce rate and increased number of unmarried females in Egypt.Advances in genetics have led to a deeper understanding of the effect of inbreeding on the occurrence of genetic diseases. As prolonged parental inbreeding has led to a background of homozygosity above that predicted by simple models of consanguinity, we encourage counselors to call on a reliable computer program for calculation of the recurrence risks in these families.
World Pumps 11/2011; 12(2). DOI:10.1016/j.ejmhg.2011.07.001
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the relation between maternal Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and the occurrence of neural tube defects (NTDs) in newborns.
This hospital-based case-control study was carried out in Dezyani Teaching Hospital, Gorgan, Northern Iran from April 2007 to March 2009. Thirty-five mothers with NTD-affected newborns, and 53 mothers with healthy newborns were considered the cases and controls. A peripheral blood sample was obtained from all subjects, and H. pylori infections were tested by H. pylori serum antibody. The serum folic acid, vitamin B12, ferritin, and homocysteine concentrations were measured by laboratory tests. Data were analyzed using odds ratio (OR) and logistic regression.
Forty-three percent of cases, and 26% of controls were positive for H. pylori IgG antibody, and this difference was not significant. The H. pylori seropositivity non significantly increased the risk of NTD-affected pregnancies (OR: 2.08; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.84-5.17, p=0.11). Serum vitamin B12 deficiency was detected in 17% of cases and 13% of controls, and folic acid deficiency in 17% of cases and 13% of controls (p=0.61). The H. pylori seropositivity was non significantly associated with low serum folate (OR 1.93 CI: 0.58-6.4, p=0.34) and ferritin (OR 1.24; CI: 0.42-3.60, p=0.68).
Maternal H. pylori infection can increase the risk of occurrence of NTDs in newborns.
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