Because little is known about the etiology of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), a heterogeneous disease, and because dietary factors are modifiable, the authors examined the associations between nutrients related to one-carbon metabolism and risk of NHL in a population-based case-control study of Connecticut women diagnosed between 1996 and 2000. A total of 594 cases and 710 controls completed a food frequency questionnaire for determination of intakes of folate, vitamins B(2), B(6), and B(12), and methionine. Through unconditional logistic regression, the authors estimated the risk of NHL associated with intake of each nutrient. Comparing the highest quartile of intake with the lowest, the authors found lower risks of all NHL associated with increasing intakes of folate and methionine. Analysis by NHL subtype indicated lower risks of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (highest quartile vs. lowest: odds ratio (OR) = 0.54, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.30, 0.98; p-trend = 0.02) and marginal zone lymphoma (highest quartile vs. lowest: OR = 0.08, 95% CI: 0.02, 0.26; p-trend < 0.0001) associated with folate. Vitamin B(6) intake was also associated with lower risk of NHL overall and of marginal zone lymphoma (highest quartile vs. lowest: OR = 0.23, 95% CI: 0.08, 0.65; p-trend = 0.002). These findings suggest that these nutrients may be important for susceptibility to NHL.
"Whereas dietary B 12 was inversely associated with NHL risk in male smokers enrolled in the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene prevention trial (HR 0.61, 95% CI 0.37–1.00) , this finding was not confirmed in three case-control studies each of which found protective associations for higher intake of either vitamin B 6 , methionine , and folate either overall or in specific subgroups (i.e., alcohol abstainers)   . It is likely that the risk associated with these micronutrients may be modified by other exposures, including consumption of alcohol , or by genetic susceptibility and/or gene-environment interactions involving one-carbon metabolism genes . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The incidence rates of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) have steadily increased over the last several decades in the United States, and the temporal trends in incidence can only be partially explained by the HIV epidemic. In 1992, an international workshop sponsored by the United States National Cancer Institute concluded that there was an "emerging epidemic" of NHL and emphasized the need to investigate the factors responsible for the increasing incidence of this disease. Over the past two decades, numerous epidemiological studies have examined the risk factors for NHL, particularly for putative environmental and lifestyle risk factors, and international consortia have been established in order to investigate rare exposures and NHL subtype-specific associations. While few consistent risk factors for NHL aside from immunosuppression and certain infectious agents have emerged, suggestive associations with several lifestyle and environmental factors have been reported in epidemiologic studies. Further, increasing evidence has suggested that the effects of these and other exposures may be limited to or stronger for particular NHL subtypes. This paper examines the progress that has been made over the last twenty years in elucidating the etiology of NHL, with a primary emphasis on lifestyle factors and environmental exposures.
Journal of Cancer Epidemiology 09/2012; 2012(6):978930. DOI:10.1155/2012/978930
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) are among the few neoplasms whose incidence and mortality have been rising in Europe and North America over the last few decades. To update trends from NHL, we considered mortality data up to 2004 in several European countries, and for comparative purpose in the USA and Japan. We also analyzed patterns in incidence for selected European countries providing national data. In most European countries, NHL mortality rose up to the mid 1990s, and started to level off or decline in the following decade. The rates were, however, still increasing in eastern Europe. Overall, in the European Union, mortality from NHL declined from 4.3/100,000 to 4.1 in men and from 2.7 to 2.5 in women between the late 1990s and the early 2000s. Similarly, NHL mortality rates declined from 6.5/100,000 to 5.5 in US men and from 4.2 to 3.5 in US women. In most countries considered, NHL incidence rates rose up to 1995-99, while they tended to level off or decline thereafter, with particular favorable patterns in countries from northern Europe. Thus, the epidemic of NHL observed during the second half of the 20th century has now started to level off in Europe as in other developed areas of the world.
International Journal of Cancer 10/2008; 123(8):1917-23. DOI:10.1002/ijc.23722 · 5.09 Impact Factor
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