Disposition and oral bioavailability of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in pigs
ABSTRACT The pharmacokinetic properties of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid were studied in healthy, fasted pigs after single intravenous (i.v.) and oral (p.o.) dosage of 20 mg/kg of amoxicillin and 5 mg/kg of clavulanic acid. The plasma concentrations of the drugs were determined by validated high-performance liquid chromatographic methods and the pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by compartmental and noncompartmental analyses. After i.v. administration of the two drugs, plasma concentration-time curves were best described by a three-compartmental open model for amoxicillin and a two-compartmental open model for clavulanic acid. Amoxicillin (with a t(1/2 gamma) = 1.03 h and a clearance of 0.58 L/h.kg) and clavulanic acid (with a t(1/2 beta) of 0.74 h and a clearance of 0.41 L/h.kg) were both rapidly eliminated from plasma. Both drugs had apparently the same volume of distribution of 0.34 L/kg. After p.o. administration of the two drugs, a noncompartmental model was used. Elimination half-lives of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid were not significantly different, i.e. 0.73 and 0.67 h respectively. The mean maximal plasma concentrations of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid were 3.14 and 2.42 mg/L, and these were reached after 1.19 and 0.88 h respectively. The mean p.o. bioavailability was found to be 22.8% for amoxicillin and 44.7% for clavulanic acid.
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Readings in Advanced Pharmacokinetics - Theory, Methods and Applications, 04/2012; , ISBN: 978-953-51-0533-6
- "Oral bioavailability of amoxicillin is approximately half when compared to those in poultry, dogs and cats. The exact explanation is not yet known, but it can be attributed to acid-catalysed hydrolysis, intestinal enzymes or a carrier mediated uptake mechanism, that can be saturated (Reyns et al., 2007). Thus, increasing dosage decreases oral bioavailability, as described in humans (Arancibia et al., 1988). "
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ABSTRACT: A residue depletion study of amoxicillin (AMO) and its major metabolites, amoxicilloic acid (AMA) and amoxicillin diketopiperazine-2',5'-dione, was performed after a single oral (p.o.) and intravenous (i.v.) administration of amoxicillin (20 mg kg (-1)) and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (20 and 5 mg kg (-1)) to pigs. Animals were slaughtered 12, 36, 48, 60, 72, and 84 h after dosing. Tissue samples were analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Kidney samples contained high concentrations of amoxicilloic acid metabolite, which depleted much slower from tissues than amoxicillin, both after p.o. (t1/2AMO = 4.5 h vs t1/2AMA = 8 h) and i.v. (t1/2AMO = 4 h vs t1/2AMA = 8 h) administration. Moreover, after oral administration, significantly higher amoxicilloic acid concentrations were measured in liver and kidney than after i.v. administration. The coadministration of amoxicillin with clavulanic acid provoked no significant differences in amoxicilloic acid tissue concentrations as compared to an amoxicillin dosing. The prolonged presence of residues of amoxicilloic acid in edible tissues can play an important role in food safety, because the compound could give rise to a possible health risk, although it is not included in the maximum residue limit legislation.Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 02/2008; 56(2):448-54. DOI:10.1021/jf072398p · 2.91 Impact Factor