Disposition and oral bioavailability of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in pigs.
ABSTRACT The pharmacokinetic properties of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid were studied in healthy, fasted pigs after single intravenous (i.v.) and oral (p.o.) dosage of 20 mg/kg of amoxicillin and 5 mg/kg of clavulanic acid. The plasma concentrations of the drugs were determined by validated high-performance liquid chromatographic methods and the pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by compartmental and noncompartmental analyses. After i.v. administration of the two drugs, plasma concentration-time curves were best described by a three-compartmental open model for amoxicillin and a two-compartmental open model for clavulanic acid. Amoxicillin (with a t(1/2 gamma) = 1.03 h and a clearance of 0.58 L/h.kg) and clavulanic acid (with a t(1/2 beta) of 0.74 h and a clearance of 0.41 L/h.kg) were both rapidly eliminated from plasma. Both drugs had apparently the same volume of distribution of 0.34 L/kg. After p.o. administration of the two drugs, a noncompartmental model was used. Elimination half-lives of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid were not significantly different, i.e. 0.73 and 0.67 h respectively. The mean maximal plasma concentrations of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid were 3.14 and 2.42 mg/L, and these were reached after 1.19 and 0.88 h respectively. The mean p.o. bioavailability was found to be 22.8% for amoxicillin and 44.7% for clavulanic acid.
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ABSTRACT: Objective-To determine pharmacodynamic cutoffs with pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic principles and Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) for use of amoxicillin in pigs to set interpretive criteria for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Sample-191 plasma disposition curves of amoxicillin obtained from 21 IV, 104 IM, and 66 PO administrations corresponding to 2,098 plasma concentrations. Procedures-A population model of amoxicillin disposition in pigs was developed for PO and IM administration. The MCS method was then used to determine, for various dosage regimens, the proportion of pigs achieving plasma amoxicillin concentrations greater than a selection of possible minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging from 0.0625 to 4 mg/L for at least 40% of a 24-hour period. Results-A target attainment rate (TAR) of 90% was never achieved with the breakpoint recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (0.5 mg/L) when the usual recommended dosage (20 mg/kg/d) was used. Only by dividing the orally administered daily dose into 12-hour administration intervals was a TAR > 90% achieved when the total dose was at least 40 mg/kg for a pathogen having an MIC ≤ 0.0625 mg/L. For the IM route, the TAR of 90% could only be achieved for MICs of 0.0625 and 0.125 mg/L with the use of 15 and 30 mg/kg doses, respectively. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Population kinetics and MCS are required to determine robust species-specific interpretive criteria (susceptible, intermediate, and resistant classifications) for antimicrobial susceptibility testing breakpoints (taking into account interanimal variability).American Journal of Veterinary Research 02/2014; 75(2):124-31. · 1.35 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The pharmacokinetic properties of amoxicillin in healthy and respiratory-diseased pigs were studied, after ad libitum administration of medicated feed. In addition, amoxicillin dose linearity and drug penetration into respiratory tract tissues were evaluated in diseased animals. The respiratory disease involves porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and bacterial agents such as Pasteurella multocida, Bordetella bronchiseptica and Streptococcus suis. Typical clinical signs and gross lesions of respiratory disease were observed. The plasma pharmacokinetic analysis was performed by means of a noncompartmental approach. After single intravenous bolus administration of amoxicillin to healthy pigs, the steady-state volume of distribution was 0.61 L/kg, the total plasma clearance was 0.83 L/h/kg and the mean residence time was 0.81 h. After oral bolus administration, the mean absorption time was 1.6 h and the peak plasma concentration (3.09 μg/mL) reached at 1.1 h postadministration. The oral bioavailability was 34%. For oral ad libitum administration, plasma concentration-time profiles were related to the feeding behaviour. Plasma concentrations at steady-state were established between 12 and 120 h. The pharmacokinetic parameters calculated (C(maxss) , C(minss) , C(avss) and AUC(24ss) ) showed significantly lower values in healthy pigs compared to diseased animals. This was in accordance with the significantly higher amoxicillin bioavailability (44.7% vs. 14.1%) and longer absorption period observed in diseased pigs. Amoxicillin dose linearity in diseased animals was established in a dose range of 4-18 mg/kg. On the other hand, tissue distribution ratio in diseased animals was 0.65 for bronchial mucosa, 0.48 for lung tissue and 0.38 for lymph nodes. Our results suggest that the pharmacokinetic properties and disposition of amoxicillin can be influenced by the disease state or by related factors such as changes in the gastrointestinal transit.Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 06/2011; 34(3):265-76. · 1.35 Impact Factor
- 04/2012; , ISBN: 978-953-51-0533-6