Impedance spectroscopy and biosensing.
ABSTRACT This chapter introduces the basic terms of impedance and the technique of impedance measurements. Furthermore, an overview of the application of this transduction method for analytical purposes will be given. Examples for combination with enzymes, antibodies, DNA but also for the analysis of living cells will be described. Special attention is devoted to the different electrode design and amplification schemes developed for sensitivity enhancement. Finally, the last two sections will show examples from the label-free determination of DNA and the sensorial detection of autoantibodies involved in celiac disease.
- SourceAvailable from: Kunihiro NishidaJournal of The American College of Cardiology - J AMER COLL CARDIOL. 01/2011; 57(14).
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ABSTRACT: Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS) is an in vitro impedance measuring system to quantify the behavior of cells within adherent cell layers. To this end, cells are grown in special culture chambers on top of opposing, circular gold electrodes. A constant small alternating current is applied between the electrodes and the potential across is measured. The insulating properties of the cell membrane create a resistance towards the electrical current flow resulting in an increased electrical potential between the electrodes. Measuring cellular impedance in this manner allows the automated study of cell attachment, growth, morphology, function, and motility. Although the ECIS measurement itself is straightforward and easy to learn, the underlying theory is complex and selection of the right settings and correct analysis and interpretation of the data is not self-evident. Yet, a clear protocol describing the individual steps from the experimental design to preparation, realization, and analysis of the experiment is not available. In this article the basic measurement principle as well as possible applications, experimental considerations, advantages and limitations of the ECIS system are discussed. A guide is provided for the study of cell attachment, spreading and proliferation; quantification of cell behavior in a confluent layer, with regard to barrier function, cell motility, quality of cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesions; and quantification of wound healing and cellular responses to vasoactive stimuli. Representative results are discussed based on human microvascular (MVEC) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), but are applicable to all adherent growing cells.Journal of Visualized Experiments 01/2014;
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ABSTRACT: An efficient DNA impedance biosensing platform is constructed, in which positively charged N,N-bis-(1-aminopropyl-3-propylimidazol salt)-3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic acid diimide (PDI) is anchored to graphene sheets. The π-π stacking and electronic interactions are elucidated by the distinct absorption features in UV-vis spectra and by quenching perylene fluorescence in contact with graphene. The rational design and tailoring of graphene surface invest it with desired properties (dispersive, structural, photoelectrical and conductive, etc.) and boost its application. Electrostatic interaction between PDI's positively charged imidazole rings and negatively charged phosphate backbones of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) facilitates ssDNA immobilization. This manner is different from these mainly based on the attraction between the rings in DNA bases and the hexagonal cells of graphene, which is disturbed after hybridization and causes the leaving of formed double-stranded DNA from graphene surface. The electrostatic ssDNA grafting occupies phosphate backbones and particularly leaves the bases available for efficient hybridization. DNA immobilization and hybridization lead to PDI/graphene interfacial property changes, which are monitored by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and adopted as the analytical signal. The conserved sequence of the pol gene of human immunodeficiency virus 1 is satisfactorily detected via this PDI/graphene platform and shows high reproducibility, selectivity.Biomaterials 11/2011; 33(4):1097-106. · 8.31 Impact Factor