Acid-sensing ion channel-1 contributes to axonal degeneration in autoimmune inflammation of the central nervous system.
ABSTRACT Multiple sclerosis is a neuroinflammatory disease associated with axonal degeneration. The neuronally expressed, proton-gated acid-sensing ion channel-1 (ASIC1) is permeable to Na+ and Ca2+, and excessive accumulation of these ions is associated with axonal degeneration. We tested the hypothesis that ASIC1 contributes to axonal degeneration in inflammatory lesions of the central nervous system (CNS). After induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), Asic1-/- mice showed both a markedly reduced clinical deficit and reduced axonal degeneration compared to wild-type mice. Consistently with acidosis-mediated injury, pH measurements in the spinal cord of EAE mice showed tissue acidosis sufficient to open ASIC1. The acidosis-related protective effect of Asic1 disruption was also observed in nerve explants in vitro. Amiloride, a licensed and clinically safe blocker of ASICs, was equally neuroprotective in nerve explants and in EAE. Although ASICs are also expressed by immune cells, this expression is unlikely to explain the neuroprotective effect of Asic1 inactivation, as CNS inflammation was similar in wild-type and Asic1-/- mice. In addition, adoptive transfer of T cells from wild-type mice did not affect the protection mediated by Asic1 disruption. These results suggest that ASIC1 blockers could provide neuroprotection in multiple sclerosis.
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ABSTRACT: Acid-sensing is associated with both nociception and taste transduction. Stimulation of sensory neurons by acid is of particular interest, because acidosis accompanies many painful inflammatory and ischaemic conditions. The pain caused by acids is thought to be mediated by H+-gated cation channels present in sensory neurons. We have now cloned a H+-gated channel (ASIC, for acid-sensing ionic channel) that belongs to the amiloride-sensitive Na+ channel/degenerin family of ion channels. Heterologous expression of ASIC induces an amiloride-sensitive cation (Na+ > Ca2+ > K+) channel which is transiently activated by rapid extracellular acidification. The biophysical and pharmacological properties of the ASIC channel closely match the H+-gated cation channel described in sensory neurons. ASIC is expressed in dorsal root ganglia and is also distributed widely throughout the brain. ASIC appears to be the simplest of ligand-gated channels.Nature 04/1997; 386(6621):173-7. · 38.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Axonal degeneration is a prominent pathological feature in multiple sclerosis observed over a century ago. The gradual loss of axons is thought to underlie irreversible clinical deficits in this disease. The precise mechanisms of axonopathy are poorly understood, but likely involve excess accumulation of Ca ions. In healthy fibers, ATP-dependent pumps support homeostasis of ionic gradients. When energy supply is limited, either due to inadequate delivery (e.g., ischemia, mitochondrial dysfunction) and/or excessive utilization (e.g., conduction along demyelinated axons), ion gradients break down, unleashing a variety of aberrant cascades, ultimately leading to Ca overload. During Na pump dysfunction, Na can enter axons through non-inactivating Na channels, promoting axonal Na overload and depolarization by allowing K egress. This will gate voltage-sensitive Ca channels and stimulate reverse Na-Ca exchange, leading to further Ca entry. Energy failure will also promote Ca release from intracellular stores. Neurotransmitters such as glutamate can be released by reverse operation of Na-dependent transporters, in turn activating a variety of ionotropic and metabotropic receptors, further exacerbating overload of cellular Ca. Together, this Ca overload will inappropriately stimulate a variety of Ca-dependent enzyme systems (e.g., calpains, phospholipases), leading to structural and functional axonal injury. Pharmacological interruption at key points in these interrelated injury cascades (e.g., at voltage-gated Na channels or AMPA receptors) may confer significant neuroprotection to compromised central axons and supporting glia. Such agents may represent attractive adjuncts to currently available immunomodulatory therapies.Journal of the Neurological Sciences 07/2005; 233(1-2):3-13. · 2.24 Impact Factor
Article: Interleukin-1 and neuronal injury.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Interleukin-1 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that has numerous biological effects, including activation of many inflammatory processes (through activation of T cells, for example), induction of expression of acute-phase proteins, an important function in neuroimmune responses and direct effects on the brain itself. There is now extensive evidence to support the direct involvement of interleukin-1 in the neuronal injury that occurs in both acute and chronic neurodegenerative disorders. This article discusses the key evidence of a role for interleukin-1 in acute neurodegeneration - for example, stroke and brain trauma - and provides a rationale for targeting the interleukin-1 system as a therapeutic strategy.Nature reviews. Immunology 09/2005; 5(8):629-40. · 33.13 Impact Factor