Article

Repetitive behaviours in typically developing 2‐year‐olds

Department of Psychology, University of Durham, UK.
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 5.67). 12/2007; 48(11):1131-8. DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2007.01778.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Repetitive behaviours are an essential part of the diagnosis of autism but are also commonly seen in typically developing children. The current study investigated the frequency and factor structure of repetitive behaviours in a large community sample of 2-year-olds.
A new measure, the Repetitive Behaviour Questionnaire (RBQ-2) was completed by 679 parents.
The RBQ-2 had good psychometric properties. A four-factor model provided the best fit for the data, accounting for 51% of the variance, and suggested 4 sub-scales: unusual sensory interests, repetitive motor movements, rigidity/adherence to routine and preoccupations with restricted patterns of interest. These sub-scales closely resembled repetitive behaviour subtypes within the ICD-10 criteria for autism. Repetitive behaviours of every type were frequently reported. Higher scores were found for all children, and especially boys, on the subscale relating to preoccupations with restricted patterns of interests.
The results support the proposal that repetitive behaviours represent a continuum of functioning that extends to the typically developing child population.

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Available from: Bronia Arnott, Aug 08, 2015
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    • "The aim of Study 1 was to develop and test the RBQ-2A as a self-report measure of RRBs in NT adults. An existing parent report measure of RRBs, the RBQ-2 (Leekam et al. 2007b), was adapted into an adult self-report measure and administered to a university student sample. PCA resulted in a two-component structure, one comprising motor behaviours, RMB, and the other behaviours related to routines and a preference for sameness, IS. "
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    ABSTRACT: In two studies we developed and tested a new self-report measure of restricted and repetitive behaviours (RRB) suitable for adults. In Study 1, The Repetitive Behaviours Questionnaire-2 for adults (RBQ-2A) was completed by a sample of 163 neurotypical adults. Principal components analysis revealed two components: Repetitive Motor Behaviours and Insistence on Sameness. In Study 2, the mean RBQ-2A scores of a group of adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; N = 29) were compared to an adult neurotypical group (N = 37). The ASD sample had significantly higher total and subscale scores. These results indicate that the RBQ-2A has utility as a self-report questionnaire measure of RRBs suitable for adults, with potential clinical application.
    Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 07/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10803-015-2514-6 · 3.06 Impact Factor
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    • "Some of the differences might be explained in terms of the developmental level of each sample, given that the ASD sample was older than the original published sample. For example, two items (carrying around objects and arranging objects), commonly seen in typical toddlers and infants (59% and 64% of children respectively in Leekam et al., 2007), did not load sufficiently highly to be included for the ASD sample, while two other items (hoarding objects and fascination with specific objects), which are common in older children, loaded in the factor analysis for ASD children but not in the original published study. Apart from these four items that might be explained by their developmental appropriateness, only two further items (interest in smell and eating the same/small range of foods) loaded onto different factors for the two samples, although both might be considered to have a mixed interpretation relevant to both sensory and restricted interests. "
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to explore how atypical reactions to sensory stimuli contribute to the relation between restricted and repetitive behaviors and anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In Study 1, factor analysis of restricted and repetitive behaviors was carried out using the Repetitive Behavior Questionnaire-2 (RBQ-2), completed by 120 parents of 2- to 17-year-olds with ASD. Two subtypes resulted: repetitive sensory and motor behaviors, and insistence on sameness, accounting for 40% of the variance. This two-factor solution was retained even when the sensory items of the RBQ-2 were removed. In Study 2, 49 of the same parents also completed the Spence Anxiety Scales and the Sensory Profile. The insistence on sameness factor was significantly associated with anxiety while the repetitive motor behaviors factor was not. The relation between anxiety and insistence on sameness was mediated by sensory avoiding and to a lesser extent by sensory sensitivity. Implications for arousal explanations of ASD and for clinical practice are discussed.
    Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders 02/2014; 8(2):82–92. DOI:10.1016/j.rasd.2013.10.001 · 2.96 Impact Factor
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    • "Arnott et al. 2010; Deloache et al. 2007) suggesting that in the early stages of development, RRBs are observable in typically developing children. The presence of RRBs early in typical development also supports the findings of studies using parent report (Arnott et al. 2010; Leekam et al. 2007) while adding to the literature by showing at multiple time points only one form of RRB was consistently shown in our TD sample and a wider ranger in the ASD group. This finding supports the observational data of Watt et al. (2008) and Barber et al. (2012) but also replicates their findings at multiple time points in children with and without an ASD. "
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    ABSTRACT: Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are characteristic of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, compared to social and communicative impairments, less is known about their development, trajectory and etiology. This study explored RRBs in young children with ASD matched to typically developing (TD) children on non-verbal development. RRBs were coded from direct observation at three time points within 13 months of development. Children with ASD displayed higher frequency and greater diversity of RRBs at all time points, however RRBs were not unique to ASD and evident in the TD control group albeit at a reduced frequency. RRBs did not correlate with social and communicative impairments in the ASD group, suggesting dissociation between these domains.
    Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 12/2013; 44(5). DOI:10.1007/s10803-013-1986-5 · 3.34 Impact Factor
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