Article

Nutritional and toxicological importance of macro, trace, and ultra-trace elements in algae food products

Institute of Nutrition, Friedrich Schiller University, Dornburger Strasse 24, D-07743 Jena, Germany.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (Impact Factor: 3.11). 01/2008; 55(25):10470-5. DOI: 10.1021/jf0721500
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The content of 5 macro elements (Na, K, Ca, Mg, and P), 6 trace elements (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Se, and I), and 4 ultra-trace elements (As, Pb, Cd, and Hg) in 34 edible dried seaweed products of brown algae (Laminaria sp., Undaria pinnatifida, and Hizikia fusiforme) and red algae (Porphyra sp.) originated from China, Japan, and Korea and bought by retail in Germany was determined. The content of these elements was analyzed by spectrometric methods (ICP-AES, ICP-MS, HGAAS, and CVAAS). Assuming a daily intake with 5 g FM of algae, the contribution of the essential elements to the diet is low, with the exception of I. Brown algae contained as much as 1316 +/- 1669 mg of I/kg FM. More than 4000 mg of I/kg FM were found in several Laminaria sp. Moreover, some brown algae, such as Hizikia fusiforme, had high contents of total As (87.7 +/- 8.2 mg/kg FM).

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Christine Dawczynski, Sep 01, 2015
1 Follower
 · 
392 Views
 · 
138 Downloads
  • Source
    • "Dawczynski et al [2] "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Edible seaweed products have been consumed in many Asian countries. Edible seaweeds accumulate iodine from seawater, and are therefore a good dietary source of iodine. An adequate consumption of seaweed can eliminate iodine deficiency disorders, but excessive iodine intake is not good for health. The recommended dietary reference intake of 0.15 mg/d and 0.14 mg/d for iodine has been established in the United States and Taiwan, respectively. In this study, 30 samples of seaweed were surveyed for iodine content. The samples included 10 nori (Porphyra), 10 wakame (Undaria), and 10 kombu (Laminaria) products. The iodine in seaweed was derivatized with 3-pentanone and detected by gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD). The method detection limit was 0.5 mg/kg. The iodine content surveyed for nori was 29.3–45.8 mg/kg, for wakame 93.9–185.1 mg/kg, and for kombu 241–4921 mg/kg. Kombu has the highest average iodine content 2523.5 mg/kg, followed by wakame (139.7 mg/kg) and nori (36.9 mg/kg). The GC-ECD method developed in this study is a low-cost alternative to inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy for iodine detection in seaweeds. The iodine intake from seaweed in the current survey was calculated and compared with the iodine dietary reference intake of Taiwan. The risk and benefit of seaweed consumption is also discussed.
    Journal of Food and Drug Analysis 06/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jfda.2014.01.014 · 0.40 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "ean heritage , it is important to understand that the portions of edible seaweeds are often small and that even more established edible brown seaweeds , such as kelps , are similar in composition to sea grapes ( see MacArtain et al . 2007 ; Matanjun et al . 2009 ) . Brown sea - weeds may in fact only contribute iodine as a unique mineral feature ( Dawczynski et al . 2007a ) , yet ironically iodine also represents one of the main concerns with seaweed consump - tion in the general public . However , this concern should be limited to brown seaweeds , including kelps and Sargassum , as Caulerpa has relatively low levels of iodine ( Matanjun et al . 2009 ) . Similarly , other known carcinogens such as arseni"
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: "Sea grapes" is a collective term for the edible varieties of the green seaweed genus Caulerpa. Here we conduct comparative analyses of the biomass productivities and biochemical properties of C. lentillifera and C. racemosa from tropical Australia. Commercial-scale production was evaluated using 1 m(2) culture units with high stocking densities (> 5 kg m(-2)). Productivity of C. lentillifera in a 6-week period yielded, on average, 2 kg week(-1), whereas C. racemosa yielded < 0.5 kg week(-1). Morphometric comparisons of the harvestable biomass revealed that C. lentillifera had a higher proportion of fronds (edible portions) to horizontal runners (stolons) and a higher density of fronds per unit area. C. racemosa fronds, however, were significantly longer. The nutritional value of C. racemosa was higher than C. lentillifera for both polyunsaturated fatty acids (10.6 vs. 5.3 mg g(-1) DW) and pigments (9.4 vs. 4.2 mg g(-1) DW). The content of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and beta-carotene decreased with increasing frond size in both species. Trace element contents also varied substantially between the species, including higher levels of zinc, magnesium and strontium in C. lentillifera, and higher levels of selenium in C. racemosa. Some less desirable elements were higher in C. lentillifera, including arsenic (1 vs. 0.1 ppm) and cadmium, whereas others were higher in C. racemosa, including lead, copper and vanadium. Overall C. lentillifera has a high biomass production potential in monoculture and distinct nutritional properties that warrant a focus on its commercialisation as a new aquaculture product in tropical Australia and in Southeast Asia more broadly.
    Journal of Applied Phycology 12/2013; DOI:10.1007/s10811-013-0227-9 · 2.49 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP–MS) has been validated for analysis of trace metals in plants (Leiterer et al., 1997). However, ICP–MS is currently being used to detect metals in seaweeds (Netten et al., 2000) and algae food products (Dawczynski et al., 2007). The aim of the study was to determine the heavy metal concentration/contamination in 25 commercially available Spirulina products from different countries of origin, in order to assess their contamination sources during their treatment processes as well as the harvesting conditions. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: For consumption of health foods of Spirulina, by the general public, health food stores are increasingly offering more exotic products. Though Spirulina consumption is growing worldwide, relatively few studies have reported on the quantities of heavy metals/minerals they contain and/or their potential effects on the population's health. This study reveals the concentrations of six typical heavy metals/minerals (Ni, Zn, Hg, Pt, Mg, and Mn) in 25 Spirulina products commercialized worldwide for direct human consumption. Samples were ground, digested and quantified by Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The concentrations (mg/kg d.w.) were range from 0.001 to 0.012 (Pt) followed by 0.002-0.028 (Hg), 0.002-0.042 (Mg), 0.005-2.248 (Mn), 0.211-4.672 (Ni) and 0.533-6.225 (Zn). The inorganic elements of the present study were significantly lower than the recommended daily intake (RDI) level of heavy metal elements (mg/daily) Ni (0.4), Zn (13), Hg (0.01), Pt (0.002), Mg (400) and Mn (4). Based on this study the concentration of inorganic elements was not found to exceed the present regulation levels, and they can be considered as safe food.
    Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 10/2013; 20(4):383-8. DOI:10.1016/j.sjbs.2013.04.006 · 0.74 Impact Factor
Show more