Study of the mechanism of action of anoplin, a helical antimicrobial decapeptide with ion channel-like activity, and the role of the amidated C-terminus.
ABSTRACT Anoplin, an antimicrobial, helical decapeptide from wasp venom, looses its biological activities by mere deamidation of its C-terminus. Secondary structure determination, by circular dichroism spectroscopy in amphipathic environments, and lytic activity in zwitterionic and anionic vesicles showed quite similar results for the amidated and the carboxylated forms of the peptide. The deamidation of the C-terminus introduced a negative charge at an all-positive charged peptide, causing a loss of amphipathicity, as indicated by molecular dynamics simulations in TFE/water mixtures and this subtle modification in a peptide's primary structure disturbed the interaction with bilayers and biological membranes. Although being poorly lytic, the amidated form, but not the carboxylated, presented ion channel-like activity on anionic bilayers with a well-defined conductance step; at approximately the same concentration it showed antimicrobial activity. The pores remain open at trans-negative potentials, preferentially conducting cations, and this situation is equivalent to the interaction of the peptide with bacterial membranes that also maintain a high negative potential inside.
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ABSTRACT: Several short antimicrobial peptides that are rich in tryptophan and arginine residues were designed with a series of simple modifications such as end capping and cyclization. The two sets of hexapeptides are based on the Trp- and Arg-rich primary sequences from the "antimicrobial centre" of bovine lactoferricin as well as an antimicrobial sequence obtained through the screening of a hexapeptide combinatorial library. HPLC, mass spectrometry and antimicrobial assays were carried out to explore the consequences of the modifications on the serum stability and microbicidal activity of the peptides. The results show that C-terminal amidation increases the antimicrobial activity but that it makes little difference to its proteolytic degradation in human serum. On the other hand, N-terminal acetylation decreases the peptide activities but significantly increases their protease resistance. Peptide cyclization of the hexameric peptides was found to be highly effective for both serum stability and antimicrobial activity. However the two cyclization strategies employed have different effects, with disulfide cyclization resulting in more active peptides while backbone cyclization results in more proteolytically stable peptides. However, the benefit of backbone cyclization did not extend to longer 11-mer peptides derived from the same region of lactoferricin. Mass spectrometry data support the serum stability assay results and allowed us to determine preferred proteolysis sites in the peptides. Furthermore, isothermal titration calorimetry experiments showed that the peptides all had weak interactions with albumin, the most abundant protein in human serum. Taken together, the results provide insight into the behavior of the peptides in human serum and will therefore aid in advancing antimicrobial peptide design towards systemic applications.PLoS ONE 01/2010; 5(9). · 4.09 Impact Factor
Article: Investigating the effects of L- to D-amino acid substitution and deamidation on the activity and membrane interactions of antimicrobial peptide anoplin.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Isolated from the venom sac of solitary spider wasp, Anoplius samariensis, anoplin is the smallest linear α-helical antimicrobial peptide found naturally with broad spectrum activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and little hemolytic activity toward human erythrocytes. Deamidation was found to decrease the peptide's antibacterial properties. In the present work, interactions of amidated (Ano-NH2) and deamidated (Ano-OH) forms of anoplin as well as Ano-NH2 composed of all D-amino acids (D-Ano-NH2) with model cell membranes were investigated by means of Langmuir Blodgett (LB) technique, atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoemission electron microscopy (X-PEEM) and carboxyfluorescein leakage assay in order to gain a better understanding of the effect of these peptide modifications on membrane binding and lytic properties. According to LB, all three peptides form stable monolayers at the air/water interface with Ano-NH2 occupying a slightly greater area per molecule than Ano-OH. All three forms of the peptide interact preferentially with anionic 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-[phospho-rac-(1-glycerol)] (DPPG), rather than zwitterionic 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) lipid monolayer. Peptides form nanoscale clusters in zwitterionic but not in anionic monolayers. Finally, membrane lytic activity of all derivatives was found to depend strongly on membrane composition and lipid/peptide ratio. The results suggest that amidated forms of peptides are likely to possess higher membrane binding affinity due to the increased charge.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 11/2010; 1808(6):1592-600. · 4.66 Impact Factor