Biological effects of essential oils--a review.

Institut Curie-Section de Recherche, UMR2027 CNRS/IC, LCR V28 CEA, Bât. 110, Centre Universitaire, 91405 Orsay cedex, France; Université Abdelmalek Essâadi, Faculté des Sciences, Laboratoire de Biologie et Santé, BP 2121, Tétouan, Morocco.
Food and Chemical Toxicology (Impact Factor: 2.61). 03/2008; 46(2):446-75. DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2007.09.106
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Since the middle ages, essential oils have been widely used for bactericidal, virucidal, fungicidal, antiparasitical, insecticidal, medicinal and cosmetic applications, especially nowadays in pharmaceutical, sanitary, cosmetic, agricultural and food industries. Because of the mode of extraction, mostly by distillation from aromatic plants, they contain a variety of volatile molecules such as terpenes and terpenoids, phenol-derived aromatic components and aliphatic components. In vitro physicochemical assays characterise most of them as antioxidants. However, recent work shows that in eukaryotic cells, essential oils can act as prooxidants affecting inner cell membranes and organelles such as mitochondria. Depending on type and concentration, they exhibit cytotoxic effects on living cells but are usually non-genotoxic. In some cases, changes in intracellular redox potential and mitochondrial dysfunction induced by essential oils can be associated with their capacity to exert antigenotoxic effects. These findings suggest that, at least in part, the encountered beneficial effects of essential oils are due to prooxidant effects on the cellular level.

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    Global Veterinaria. 12/2014; 13(6):1056-1064.
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    ABSTRACT: Diabetes mellitus is one of the common and widely distributed metabolic diseases all over the world. This disease is characterized by hyperglycemia that results from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action or both. Different medicinal plant species are used as a traditional treatment for diabetes mellitus e.g. Ambrosia maritima, L. (Damsissa) which is one of these plants that its extract was used to treat diabetic patients long times ago. Aim of the work: This work was aimed to investigate the antidiabetic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of the aqueous extract of Ambrosia maritima, L. (Damsissa) on the alloxan-induced diabetic male albino rats. Material and Methods: This study was performed on thirty male albino rats with an average 100-110 g body weight. The animals were divided into three groups (10 /cage); Group I (Control untreated-group), Group II (Alloxan-induced diabetic group) and Group III (diabetic group treated orally with “28.5 mg/ kg body wt. twice/ day” of the plant extract). Results: The biochemical results showed marked decline (p<0.01) in the levels of the serum insulin, body weight, total proteins, albumin, globulin and HDL accompanied with marked elevation (p<0.001) in the levels of fasting blood glucose, levels of HOMA_IR, AST, ALT, GGT, urea, creatinine, uric acid, serum TC, TG, LDL, VLDL and ratios of TC/HDL and LDL/HDL (risk factors) in diabetic rats in comparison with the control group. Daily management of the diabetic rates with aqueous extract of Damsissa showed significant improvement in most of these parameters. Histologically, considerable improvement in the morphological changes that was observed in diabetic groups had been detected after treatment with Damsissa in liver, kidney and pancreatic tissues in comparison to the control group. Conclusion: It could be concluded that Ambrosia maritima, L. (Damsissa) can be used as an antidiabetic drug that can lower blood glucose concentration and guard against the negative effects of diabetes. Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, Alloxan, Hyperglycemia, Damsissa, Ambrosia maritima.
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    ABSTRACT: The chemical composition of essential oils isolated from the leaves of Cosmos bipinnatus and its antibacterial activity were analyzed by GC-MS and microbroth dilution assay respectively. The essential oil extracted from this plant was predominantly composed of monoterpenes (69.62%) and sesquiterpenes (22.73%). The antibacterial assay showed that the oil had significant inhibitory effects against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria isolates. The MIC of Gram-positive strains ranged between 0.16 and 0.31 mg/mL while those of Gram-negative bacteria ranged between 0.31 and 0.63 mg/mL. The Gram-positive bacteria were more susceptible to the essential oil than the Gram-negative bacteria. Most of the major components of this oil in other plants have been reported for antimicrobial activities. The antibacterial activity can be attributed to effects of the combination of several components of the oil. The results indicate that the C. bipinnatus might be exploited as natural antibacterial agent and have application in the treatment of several infectious diseases caused by these bacteria. Since this species is endemic to the eastern Free State, the plant could be collected during its bloom and used efficiently in the management of bacterial infections in South Africa.
    Iranian journal of pharmaceutical research (IJPR) 01/2014; 13(4):1417-23. · 0.51 Impact Factor


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