Biological effects of EOs-a review. Food Chem Toxicol

Université Abdelmalek Essâadi, Faculté des Sciences, Laboratoire de Biologie et Santé, BP 2121, Tétouan, Morocco.
Food and Chemical Toxicology (Impact Factor: 2.9). 03/2008; 46(2):446-75. DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2007.09.106
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Since the middle ages, essential oils have been widely used for bactericidal, virucidal, fungicidal, antiparasitical, insecticidal, medicinal and cosmetic applications, especially nowadays in pharmaceutical, sanitary, cosmetic, agricultural and food industries. Because of the mode of extraction, mostly by distillation from aromatic plants, they contain a variety of volatile molecules such as terpenes and terpenoids, phenol-derived aromatic components and aliphatic components. In vitro physicochemical assays characterise most of them as antioxidants. However, recent work shows that in eukaryotic cells, essential oils can act as prooxidants affecting inner cell membranes and organelles such as mitochondria. Depending on type and concentration, they exhibit cytotoxic effects on living cells but are usually non-genotoxic. In some cases, changes in intracellular redox potential and mitochondrial dysfunction induced by essential oils can be associated with their capacity to exert antigenotoxic effects. These findings suggest that, at least in part, the encountered beneficial effects of essential oils are due to prooxidant effects on the cellular level.

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    • "The quest for novel effective antimicrobial agents from natural products has attracted much attention particularly in the health care sector, where microbial resistance is increasing at an alarming rate and offering new challenges. Antimicrobial phytochemicals isolated from medicinal plants are thus being explored and their components probed in view of medical application to fight fatal opportunistic infections (Bakkali et al., 2008). Moreover, the problem of multidrug resistance has been observed from a wide range of pathogens and the most common example is methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial properties of essential oils (EOs) isolated from 7 exotic and 2 endemic medicinal plants of Mauritius. Eighteen microorganisms (bacterial and fungal isolates) have been used to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of the EOs as well as their ability to potentiate conventional antibiotics. Significant antibacterial activities were recorded with low minimal inhibitory concentration for 8 of the EOs using the microbroth dilution assay except for Salvia officinalis, where the activity recorded was comparable to that of the antibiotics. The synergistic effect of the EOs of Pimenta dioica, Psiadia arguta and Piper betle were observed against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus epidermidis when combined with gentamicin. The fungicidal and fungistatic effect of the EOs were observed among all the fungi irrespective of the family except for Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Forty three major compounds were identified using the gas chromatography–mass spectrometry method and predominantly composed of oxygenated monoterpenes at a dose ranging from 0.45% to 69.76%, while, in the case of P. dioica, the EO was predominantly composed of aromatic compounds at a dose of 89.22%. This study has provided key information on the antimicrobial property and phytochemical composition of some tropical medicinal plants from Mauritius.
    Industrial Crops and Products 09/2015; 71. DOI:10.1016/j.indcrop.2015.03.058 · 2.84 Impact Factor
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    • "The traditional control of such pests in stored food has relied primarily on synthetic insecticides like methyl bromide and phosphine (Shayya et al. 1997). However, due to their persistency and neurotoxic, carcinogenic , teratogenic, and mutagenic effects in non-target animals, and to the depleting effect on atmospheric ozone, the use of such chemicals is now under increasing restrictions for their environmental and human health hazards (Ayaz et al. 2010; Bakkali et al. 2008; Boyer et al. 2012; Ohr et al. 1996). Besides, several studies indicate an increase of the resistance of stored-product insects to conventional synthetic pesticides (Bell and Wilson 1995; Pretheep-Kumar et al. 2010; Kumar et al. 2010; Shukla and Toke 2013). "
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    ABSTRACT: Spent hops is a waste produced in large amount by the brewing industry. Rhyzopertha dominica and Sitophilus granarius are insects that cause important economic losses of stored foods. In this study, for the first time, spent hops has been evaluated as a source of essential oil (EO) and chemicals with repellent activity against R. dominica and S. granarius. Spent hops EO yield was 0.11 %. The terpenes myrcene, α-humulene, and β-caryophyllene were its main components (47 %). Spent hops EO RD50 values were 0.01 and 0.19 μL cm−2 for R. dominica and S. granarius, respectively. Among the chemicals, myrcene was able to exert the highest repellency against R. dominica (RD50 = 0.27 µM cm−2), while limonene was the most effective compound against S. granarius (RD50 = 0.89 µM cm−2). These results indicate spent hops as an excellent source of EO and chemicals to be utilized as low-cost, eco-friendly insect pests repellents in the protection of stored food.
    Journal of Pest Science 09/2015; 88(3). DOI:10.1007/s10340-015-0647-1 · 2.64 Impact Factor
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    • "In turn, the monoterpenes represent a group of naturally occurring organic compounds named " terpenes, " whose basic structure consists of two linked isoprene units, which are formed by 5- carbon-base (C5) each. Moreover, monoterpenes are the most representative molecules constituting about 90% of essential oils content and have a great variety of structures [1]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The literature shows that the monoterpenes are great candidates for the development of new drugs for the treatment of various pathological processes, including painful conditions. The gamma terpinene (γ-TPN) is a monoterpene present in plant species that have multiple pharmacological properties and has structural similarity to antinociceptive monoterpenes, such as limonene and alpha-phellandrene. The γ-TPN molecular mass was evaluated by mass spectrometry and showed a pseudomolecular ion with 137.0 Da. The animals did not present any signs of acute toxicity at 2 g/kg, p.o. γ-TPN (1.562 to 50 mg/kg, p.o.) showed an antinociceptive effect in the formalin, capsaicin, and glutamate tests. γ-TPN has antinociceptive action when administered by others routes in glutamate test. To eliminate a possible sedative effect of γ-TPN, the open field and rota-rod test were conducted and the γ-TPN did not show muscle relaxant activity or central depressant effect. To investigate the mechanisms of action, the animals were pretreated with naloxone, glibenclamide, atropine, mecamylamine, or L-arginine in the glutamate test. γ-TPN antinociception was inhibited in the presence of naloxone, glibenclamide, atropine, and mecamylamine. The results suggest that the γ-TPN (p.o.) produced antinociceptive effect in models of chemical nociception through the cholinergic and opioid systems involvement.
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 07/2015; 2015:1-9. DOI:10.1155/2015/829414 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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