Effects of Stir-Fry Cooking with Different Edible Oils on the Phytochemical Composition of Broccoli

CEBAS-CSIC, Food Science and Technology Dept., P.O. Box 164, 30100-Espinardo, Murcia, Spain.
Journal of Food Science (Impact Factor: 1.7). 02/2007; 72(1):S064-8. DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2006.00213.x
Source: PubMed


Numerous epidemiological studies indicate that Brassica vegetables in general and broccoli in particular protect humans against cancer; they are rich sources of glucosinolates and possess a high content on flavonoids, vitamins, and mineral nutrients. The contents of total intact glucosinolates, total phenolics, vitamin C, and minerals (potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, zinc, and copper) in the edible portions of freshly harvested broccoli (florets), which was subjected to stir-frying treatments, were evaluated. In the present work, the stir-fry cooking experiments were carried out using different edible oils from plant origin (refined olive oil, extra virgin olive oil, sunflower oil, peanut oil, soyabean oil, and safflower oil) known and used worldwide. Results showed that during stir-frying, phenolics and vitamin C were more affected than glucosinolates and minerals. Stir-fry cooking with extra virgin olive, soybean, peanut, or safflower oil did not reduce the total glucosinolate content of the cooked broccoli compared with that of the uncooked sample. The vitamin C content of broccoli stir-fried with extra virgin olive or sunflower oil was similar to that of the uncooked sample, but greater than those samples stir-fried with other oils.

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Available from: Diego A. Moreno, Jan 20, 2014
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    • "The decreases registered reached the 8 and 81% for extra virgin olive oil and refined olive oil, respectively. (Moreno et al., 2007b). Steaming, by the contrary, has been shown as the thermal cooking process that causes the lowest vitamin C loss in Brassica foods (Vallejo et al., 2002a; Volden et al., 2009; Francisco et al., 2010). "

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    • "When consumed by humans and animals in moderate amounts, some GSLs, or their enzymatically released products , can reduce the risk of cancer. [12] [13] On the other hand, GSLs are significant factors impairing the nutritional quality of rape seed and restricting its use as high-quality protein animal feed. [14] GSL hydrolysis products can produce undesirable toxic effects, including the development of goiter, when fed to animals. "
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    ABSTRACT: Glucosinolates (GSLs), a group of compounds found in Brassica plants, are toxic to some soil-borne plant pathogens because of the toxicity of their hydrolysis products, isothiocyanates. Other phytochemicals found in Brassica plants, such as phenols and ascorbic acid, may compliment the activity of GSLs. A survey of Brassica accessions from the national germplasm repository was conducted to identify potential cover crops that could be soil-incorporated for use as biofumigants. Ten Brassica accessions that demonstrated relative cold tolerance, rapid maturity, and superior biomass production were selected. The selected accessions were grown under three climatic conditions (fall greenhouse, winter high tunnel, and spring field) to investigate whether growing conditions affect their GSL, phenol, and ascorbic acid content. The selected accessions included seven accessions of Brassica juncea (Indian mustard), one of Brassica napus (oil seed rape), one of Brassica campestris (field mustard), and one of Eruca sativa (arugula). Separation of GSLs from the selected Brassica accessions was achieved using ion-exchange sephadex in disposable pipette tips. Quantification of total GSLs was based on inactivation of the endogenous thioglucosidase and liberation of the glucose moiety from the GSL molecule by addition of standardized thioglucosidase (myrosinase) and colorimetry. GSL concentration of greenhouse, high tunnel, and field-grown shoots (leaves and stems) averaged 24, 40 and 76 micromoles g(-1) fresh weight, respectively. Accessions of B. juncea generally had the highest GSL content. A comparison of accessions revealed that Ames 8887 of B. juncea contained the greatest GSL concentration, but had the lowest biomass yield and ascorbic acid concentration, in part because phytochemical concentration tended to be negatively correlated with biomass yield. More promising was B. juncea accession 'Pacific Gold' which coupled high biomass yield with above-average GSL production, but had low phenol and ascorbic acid concentration. We concluded that environmental stress on growing plants can increase the concentration of GSLs, ascorbic acid, and total phenols in Brassica shoots, but does not increase yields of these phytochemicals per unit area.
    Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part B Pesticides Food Contaminants and Agricultural Wastes 04/2009; 44(3):311-6. DOI:10.1080/03601230902728476 · 1.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the association between a vegetable-rich food pattern and obesity among Chinese adults. A food pattern rich in vegetables is associated with lower risk of obesity and non-communicable chronic disease in Western countries. A similar food pattern is found in the Chinese population but the cooking method is different. A cross-sectional household survey of 2849 men and women aged 20 years and over was undertaken in 2002 in Jiangsu Province (response rate, 89.0%). Food intake was assessed by food frequency questionnaire. Factor analysis was used to identify food patterns. Nutrient intake was measured by food weighing plus consecutive individual 3-day food records. Height, weight and waist circumference were measured. The prevalence of general obesity (BMI > or =28 kg m(-2)) was 8.0% in men and 12.7% in women, central obesity was 19.5% (> or =90 cm) and 38.2% (> or =80 cm), respectively. A four-factor solution explained 28.5% of the total variance in food frequency intake. The vegetable-rich food pattern (whole grains, fruits and vegetables) was positively associated with vegetable oil and energy intake. Prevalence of obesity/central obesity increased across the quartiles of vegetable-rich food pattern. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors and four distinct food patterns, the vegetable-rich pattern was independently associated with obesity. Compared with the lowest quartile of vegetable-rich pattern, the highest quartile had higher risk of general obesity (men, prevalence ratio (PR): 1.82, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05-3.14; women, PR: 2.25, 95% CI: 1.45-3.49). The vegetable-rich food pattern was associated with higher risk of obesity/central obesity in Chinese adults in both genders. This association can be linked to the high intake of energy due to generous use of oil for stir-frying the vegetables.
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