Malaria and hookworm infections in relation to haemoglobin and serum ferritin levels in pregnancy in Masindi district, western Uganda

Vector Control Division, Ministry of Health, P.O. Box 1661, Kampala.
Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (Impact Factor: 1.93). 02/2008; 102(2):130-6. DOI: 10.1016/j.trstmh.2007.09.015
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT This study examined the predictors of haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and serum ferritin (SF) levels in pregnant women in an area of stable malaria transmission and high prevalence of intestinal helminth infections. In total, 834 women attending antenatal care for the first time were examined. Blood slides for malaria parasites were prepared for 802, of which 154 were primigravidae (PG) and 648 were multigravidae (MG). Malaria parasitaemia rate was 42.6% (66) in PG and 33.3% (216) in MG (P=0.04). The geometric mean parasite density was 1695.8 (95% CI 1005.0-2386.5) in PG and 922.7 (95% CI 626.7-1382.6) in MG (P=0.02). Anaemia (Hb<100g/l) was found in 18.0% (94) of aparasitaemic women compared to 28.5% (80) among parasitaemic women (P<0.001). The prevalence of anaemia was 15.1% (42) in women without hookworm infection compared to 23.3% (129) among infected women (P=0.006). Malaria parasitaemia, hookworm infection, C-reactive protein, gravidity and gestational age were associated with Hb status. Malaria parasitaemia, Ascaris lumbricodes and Trichuris trichiura infections and age were associated with SF. Malaria, hookworm infections and iron deficiency were associated with anaemia in the study population.

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    ABSTRACT: Aim: In 2005, the Ghana Health Service mandated malaria and helminths chemoprophylaxis during antenatal care visits. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of malaria and helminth infections and their relationship with adverse birth outcomes (low birth weight, stillbirth, and preterm) following the implementation of these treatments. Study Design: A quantitative cross-sectional study. Method: The study was conducted on 630 women presenting for delivery in the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital and the Manhyia District Hospital from July to November 2011. Socio-demographic information and medical and obstetric history were collected. Laboratory analyses for the presence of malaria and helminths were performed. Association of malaria and helminths with birth outcomes was assessed using logistic regression to obtain odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals. Results: The prevalence of malaria, helminths and adverse birth outcomes was 9.0%, 5.0% and 22.2%, respectively. Compared with women who received malaria prophylaxis, women without malaria prophylaxis were two times more likely to have malaria infection (aOR = 2.1; 95% CI = 1.06-4.17). Women who were not screened for helminths were twice as likely to be infected with helminths (aOR = 2.4; 95% CI = 1.15-5.12) than women who were screened for helminths. For women infected with hookworm or Schistosoma mansoni, the odds of having an adverse birth outcome (aOR = 3.9; 95% CI = 1.09-14.20) and stillbirth (aOR = 7.7; 95% CI = 1.21-36.38) were greater than for women who were not infected. Conclusion: The prevalence of malaria, helminths and adverse birth outcomes was lower than previously reported 9.0% vs. 36.3, 5.0% vs. 25.7 and 22.2% vs. 44.6, respectively. Helminth but not malaria infection was found to be significantly associated with adverse birth outcomes.
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