Malaria and hookworm infections in relation to haemoglobin and serum ferritin levels in pregnancy in Masindi district, western Uganda

Vector Control Division, Ministry of Health, P.O. Box 1661, Kampala.
Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (Impact Factor: 1.93). 02/2008; 102(2):130-6. DOI: 10.1016/j.trstmh.2007.09.015
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT This study examined the predictors of haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and serum ferritin (SF) levels in pregnant women in an area of stable malaria transmission and high prevalence of intestinal helminth infections. In total, 834 women attending antenatal care for the first time were examined. Blood slides for malaria parasites were prepared for 802, of which 154 were primigravidae (PG) and 648 were multigravidae (MG). Malaria parasitaemia rate was 42.6% (66) in PG and 33.3% (216) in MG (P=0.04). The geometric mean parasite density was 1695.8 (95% CI 1005.0-2386.5) in PG and 922.7 (95% CI 626.7-1382.6) in MG (P=0.02). Anaemia (Hb<100g/l) was found in 18.0% (94) of aparasitaemic women compared to 28.5% (80) among parasitaemic women (P<0.001). The prevalence of anaemia was 15.1% (42) in women without hookworm infection compared to 23.3% (129) among infected women (P=0.006). Malaria parasitaemia, hookworm infection, C-reactive protein, gravidity and gestational age were associated with Hb status. Malaria parasitaemia, Ascaris lumbricodes and Trichuris trichiura infections and age were associated with SF. Malaria, hookworm infections and iron deficiency were associated with anaemia in the study population.

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    ABSTRACT: Aim: In 2005, the Ghana Health Service mandated malaria and helminths chemoprophylaxis during antenatal care visits. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of malaria and helminth infections and their relationship with adverse birth outcomes (low birth weight, stillbirth, and preterm) following the implementation of these treatments. Study Design: A quantitative cross-sectional study. Method: The study was conducted on 630 women presenting for delivery in the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital and the Manhyia District Hospital from July to November 2011. Socio-demographic information and medical and obstetric history were collected. Laboratory analyses for the presence of malaria and helminths were performed. Association of malaria and helminths with birth outcomes was assessed using logistic regression to obtain odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals. Results: The prevalence of malaria, helminths and adverse birth outcomes was 9.0%, 5.0% and 22.2%, respectively. Compared with women who received malaria prophylaxis, women without malaria prophylaxis were two times more likely to have malaria infection (aOR = 2.1; 95% CI = 1.06-4.17). Women who were not screened for helminths were twice as likely to be infected with helminths (aOR = 2.4; 95% CI = 1.15-5.12) than women who were screened for helminths. For women infected with hookworm or Schistosoma mansoni, the odds of having an adverse birth outcome (aOR = 3.9; 95% CI = 1.09-14.20) and stillbirth (aOR = 7.7; 95% CI = 1.21-36.38) were greater than for women who were not infected. Conclusion: The prevalence of malaria, helminths and adverse birth outcomes was lower than previously reported 9.0% vs. 36.3, 5.0% vs. 25.7 and 22.2% vs. 44.6, respectively. Helminth but not malaria infection was found to be significantly associated with adverse birth outcomes.
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    ABSTRACT: Malaria prevention and iron supplementation are associated with improved maternal and infant outcomes. However, evidence from studies in children suggests iron may adversely modify the risk of malaria. We reviewed the evidence in pregnancy of the association between malaria and markers of iron status, iron supplementation or parenteral treatment. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Global Health Library, and the Malaria in Pregnancy library to identify studies that investigated the association between iron status, iron treatment or supplementation during pregnancy and malaria. Thirty one studies contributed to the analysis; 3 experimental and 28 observational studies. Iron supplementation was not associated with an increased risk of P. falciparum malaria during pregnancy or delivery in Africa (summary Relative Risk = 0.89, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.66-1.20, I(2) = 78.8%, 5 studies). One study in Asia reported an increased risk of P. vivax within 30 days of iron supplementation (e.g. adjusted Hazard Ratio = 1.75, 95% CI 1.14-2.70 for 1-15 days), but not after 60 days. Iron deficiency (based on ferritin and C-reactive protein) was associated with lower odds for malaria infection (summary Odds Ratio = 0.35, 0.24-0.51, I(2) = 59.2%, 5 studies). With the exception of the acute phase protein ferritin, biomarkers of iron deficiency were generally not associated with malaria infection. Iron supplementation was associated with a temporal increase in P vivax, but not with an increased risk of P. falciparum; however, data are insufficient to rule out the potential for an increased risk of P. falciparum. Iron deficiency was associated with a decreased malaria risk in pregnancy only when measured with ferritin. Until there is more evidence, it is prudent to provide iron in combination with malaria prevention during pregnancy.
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