The Relationship of Immigrant Status With Access, Utilization, and Health Status for Children With Asthma
ABSTRACT Despite their high levels of poverty and less access to health care, children in immigrant families have better than expected health outcomes compared with children in nonimmigrant families. However, this observation has not been confirmed in children with chronic illness. The objective of this study was to determine whether children with asthma in immigrant families have better than expected health status than children with asthma in nonimmigrant families.
Data from the 2001 and 2003 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) were used to identify 2600 children, aged 1 to 11, with physician-diagnosed asthma. Bivariate analyses and logistic regression were performed to examine health care access, utilization, and health status measures by our primary independent variable, immigrant family status.
Compared with children with asthma in nonimmigrant families, children with asthma in immigrant families are more likely to lack a usual source of care (2.6% vs 1.0%; P < .05), report a delay in medical care (8.9% vs 5.2%; P < .01), and report no visit to the doctor in the past year (7.0% vs 3.8%; P < .05). They are less likely to report asthma symptoms (60.8% vs 74.4%; P < .01) and an emergency room visit in the past year (14.1% vs 21.1%; P < .01), yet more likely to report fair or poor perceived health status (25.0% vs 10.5%; P < .01). Multivariate models revealed that the relationship of immigrant status with health measures was complex. These models suggested that lack of insurance and poverty was associated with reduced access and utilization. Children in immigrant families were less likely to visit the emergency room for asthma in the past year (odds ratio 0.58, confidence interval, 0.36-0.93). Poverty was associated with having a limitation in function and fair or poor perceived health, whereas non-English interview language was associated with less limitation in function but greater levels of fair or poor perceived health.
Clinicians should be aware of important barriers to care that may exist for immigrant families who are poor, uninsured, and non-English speakers. Reduced health care access and utilization by children with asthma in immigrant families requires policy attention. Further research should examine barriers to care as well as parental perceptions of health for children with asthma in immigrant families.
- SourceAvailable from: Young-An Kim
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- "Asthma, the leading chronic disease during childhood in the industrialized world (Shankardass et al., 2007), is a condition for which a HHP has been noted. Studies have shown that US-born Hispanic children have higher rates of asthma than Hispanic children born outside the US (Eldeirawi et al., 2005; Holguin et al., 2005), which is notable since immigrants not only tend to be economically deprived, but also experience healthcare access barriers, legal residency challenges and English-language limitations (Holguin et al., 2005; Javier et al., 2007). "
ABSTRACT: Prior research suggests that economic deprivation has a generally negative influence on residents' health. We employ hierarchical logistic regression modeling to test if economic deprivation presents respiratory health risks or benefits to Hispanic children living in the City of El Paso (Texas, USA) at neighborhood- and individual-levels, and whether individual-level health effects of economic deprivation vary based on neighborhood-level economic deprivation. Data come from the US Census Bureau and a population-based survey of El Paso schoolchildren. The dependent variable is children's current wheezing, an established respiratory morbidity measure, which is appropriate for use with economically-deprived children with an increased likelihood of not receiving a doctor's asthma diagnosis. Results reveal that economic deprivation (measured based on poverty status) at both neighborhood- and individual-levels is associated with reduced odds of wheezing for Hispanic children. A sensitivity analysis revealed similar significant effects of individual- and neighborhood-level poverty on the odds of doctor-diagnosed asthma. Neighborhood-level poverty did not significantly modify the observed association between individual-level poverty and Hispanic children's wheezing; however, greater neighborhood poverty tends to be more protective for poor (as opposed to non-poor) Hispanic children. These findings support a novel, multilevel understanding of seemingly paradoxical effects of economic deprivation on Hispanic health.International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 08/2014; 11(8):7856-7873. DOI:10.3390/ijerph110807856 · 2.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To investigate access to effective primary health care services in children of new immigrants to Canada by assessing immunization coverage at age 2. We used multiple linked administrative data sets to analyze primary health service use and immunizations of children born between July 1, 1997, and June 30, 1998, in Ontario, Canada. These children were linked via their mothers' records to a federal Landed Immigrant Database. We used logistic regression to assess the effect on up-to-date (UTD) status at age 2 of having an immigrant mother, controlling for patient and physician characteristics. We examined the relationship of region of origin, period of immigration, and refugee status on coverage. The study population comprised 98 123 children, of whom 66.5% had complete immunization coverage. Children of immigrant mothers were more likely to be UTD (adjusted odds ratio, 1.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.10, 1.19) than children born to nonimmigrant mothers. Within the group of children of immigrant mothers, those whose mothers were refugees had the lowest rates of coverage (66.6%), but when adjusting for maternal age, sex, neighborhood income quintile, and health services characteristics, region of origin was the most important predictor of coverage. Those from the region of Southeast and Northeast Asia were most likely to be UTD (odds ratio, 1.63; 95% confidence interval, 1.46, 1.81). Period of immigration was not associated with coverage. Contrary to expectations, immigrant mothers are accessing immunizations at least as well as nonimmigrants for their young children in Ontario. There is variation by region of origin and socioeconomic status. Universal access to care reduces disparities in immunization coverage, but overall rates are too low.Ambulatory Pediatrics 05/2008; 8(3):205-9. DOI:10.1016/j.ambp.2008.01.010 · 2.49 Impact Factor